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For The Colonies Essay, Research Paper

During the last half millenary, the major European powers decided that it would be good to their involvements if they obtained settlements overseas to assist with their economic enlargement, among other things. They besides wanted to develop capitalist economy and make a universe market with an international division of labor. There were two chief stages of colonial enlargement ( Chandra, 1992 ) . The first of these was from 1450-1800, and the settlements were seen as topographic points to merchandise with, but they didn & # 8217 ; t bring forth natural stuffs and weren & # 8217 ; t seen as markets. Colonialism meant conquering, loot and little sums of colony. The 2nd stage occurred after the industrial revolution when there was a great demand for natural stuffs to be used in domestic mills. This period was from 1800-1945, and it was a stage of development instead than a stage of enlargement. The colonial leaders besides saw the settlements as markets for the merchandises that they produced at place, and they were frequently used against the involvements of other viing colonial powers. `The deductions of colonial regulation on the settlements are considerable, and at that place was a big impact on local economic sciences, civilization and political systems. The mode in which decolonisation took topographic point besides led to jobs. Many geographers see a colonial yesteryear as likely the most of import initial status for underdevelopment. Although there is an obvious negative association between colonial regulation and industrialization, colonialism did give some benefits to the settlements. `The most obvious bequest of colonial regulation was the want of resources on a monolithic graduated table over a long period of clip. In the ulterior phases of colonial regulation, the resources that could be exploited were the chief ground for set uping a settlement. For illustration, between 1600-1810, the Spanish swayers exported 185 dozenss of gold and 22,000 dozenss of Ag from their settlements in the Americas back to Spain, and in 1585, one one-fourth of all Spanish gross came from the settlements in the new universe. This sort of development was common to all swayers of settlements, and the British extracted over & # 163 ; 100,000,000 from India in approximately 50 old ages of colonial power. After the industrial revolution, the demand for more and more natural stuffs came approximately, so there was even more development of the settlements. `Leading on from the above point, there was a policy to actively deter industrialization in the settlements for a figure of grounds. It foremost meant competition for the industries at place, but it besides diverted labour from the production of natural stuffs, and it reduced the market for fabricating goods. This was why there was no province intercession to assist the domestic colonial industries to turn, and they were farther hampered by the free trade policy that was imposed on them. African imports were banned by the metropolitan powers of Europe, but they had no scruples about deluging the colonial market with inexpensive European goods to destruct the local industries. For illustration, India lost 7 % of its work force in the fabrication sector in the period 1800-1881 due to British colonial policy. Other illustrations of this class of action include the illegalisation of slicing and turn overing Millss, blast furnaces and forges after 1750 in America, and the closing down of a twine mill in Tanganyika in 1936, because British industrialists decided to kick about it. The whole colonial policy is shown absolutely in that there was merely 47 industrial constitutions using more than 10 people in Ibadan in 1963, and merely 9 of these employed more than 100. The excess generated by industry was directed back to the colonial powers instead than back into the industry. `Industrialisation merely truly began in earnest after independency, and in many instances there was a great trade of province intercession, taking to a mushrooming of province ownership. This coupled with the economic conditions it produced led to dominant category formations which were to hold profound effects on political power in the hereafter. `Slavery is likely the worst bequest of colonialism, and this was the trade of labor, chiefly from Africa, to the new universe to work for European colonists. It is estimated that between 1601 and 1870, 15,200,000 left Africa. This non merely decimated the local population but it led to blending in antecedently homogeneous races, which caused terrible racial tenseness, an illustration being in the deep South of the USA.The system of apprenticed labor is besides a colonial bequest. `Many former colonial states are now enduring serious demographic jobs, which are partially due to their colonial history. The population Numberss began to turn when the decease rate started to worsen but there was no autumn in the birth rate to fit it. The bead in the decease rate was due to Western wellness criterions, the debut of insect powders ( e.g. DDT ) , and besides due to modern medical installations. This caused serious jobs in the ulterior old ages of colonial regulation, and coupled with slow economic growing and persistently low degrees of production, the ensuing population detonation led to widespread pauperization and marginalization. `As

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all government decisions were taken by the colonial rulers, when the colonies actually got independence, very few people actually knew how to look after the country, and almost none of them knew about the workings of a democratic government. In the past the decisions had been made to benefit the European powers, so the newly independent powers were not sure what was the best thing to do to benefit their country. Their was little or no input by the natives of the colonies during the colonial era, and they rarely held positions of any importance. In Portuguese Angola, everything was ran by Portugal. This is why after independence many African countries and colonies in other parts of the world had anti-democratic policies. `The whole idea of colonialism was underpinned by the issue of racism, that Europeans were in some way better than the inhabitants of the countries that were to be colonised. The natives of the country were made to feel inferior, and they were constantly reminded of this fact, while the Europeans felt confident. The best example of this legacy was the policy of apartheid in South Africa, where the whites and the blacks were separated for years after the break down of colonial rule and subsequent independence. Racism was the justification for giving the blacks lower wages and fewer rights than those of the white people. `The use of force in colonial times had an effect on the colonies which is still felt today. Firstly, the indigenous tribes such as the Maoris and the aborigines were forced of their land and they are now found in tiny areas which are not too far removed from ghettos. Many present governments of former colonies still use force as a political tool, an example being the expulsion or imprisonment of an influential political opponent. The force shown by the colonial rulers is being continued in some countries at present. `One final negative legacy of colonialism is that countries after independence have been left vulnerable to new forms of external economic forces, such as changes in international commodity prices, and this has had an adverse effect on planned economic development. `Colonialism has not been totally destructive for the former colony and they have gained certain things from being formally under colonial rule. When countries were taken over by the European countries, trade routes were opened up with places that were formally unreachable. They now had the ability to obtain things that they could not produce themselves, and they were also able to dispose of surplus as well as specialise in products that had a comparative advantage. `When countries got independence, various colonial institutions and infrastructures were left behind that benefited the country in the long term. The most obvious of all these would be the physical infrastructure of railways, roads and ports that are now a vital part of the economy but were originally set up to transport raw materials around more efficiently, and to move imported goods around. In 1920, India ( a former colony) had 59,000kms of railway compared to China, which had only 10,800kms. Educational and legal systems that were set up, along with law and order formed the basis for subsequent development after independence. `During colonial times, there was less fighting between neighbouring tribes, and colonialism tended to have a calming influence in this respect. Another colonial idea was the creation of modern states to prevent problems and to allow people of a similar background to live together peacefully. Although this was a success at the time, it is now leading to problems in the present. `All in all, colonialism had a negative effect on the colonies rather than a positive one, but it can be argued either way as to whether it was beneficial or not. For example, Ethiopia, which only had a few years of Italian rule has benefitted from the physical infrastructure set up during its time as a colony, especially the railways. Taiwan, which was a former Japanese colony, now has one of the fastest growing economies in the world due to the industrial base that was set up during its time as a colony. But for every country that has benefited from a colonial history, there are at least two that have sufferd as a result of it, especially the poor countries of Africa and Latin America. ` ` `Bibliography ` `Allen, Tim, & Thomas, Alan. 1992. Poverty and Development in the 1990’s. Oxford University Press. `Bairoch, Paul. 1989. The Economic Development of the Third World since1900. Methuen. `Chandra, Rajesh. 1992. Industrialization and Development in the Third World. Routledge. `Cotton, James Sutherland. 1883. Colonies and Dependencies. Macmillan. `Dasgupta, Ajit Kumar. 1974. Economic Theory and the Developing Countries. Macmillan. `Potter, Robert B. 1989. Urbanization, Planning and Development in the Caribbean. Mansell. `Reitsma, H A, & Kleinpenning, J M G. 1985. The Third World in Perspective. Van Gorcum. `Simpson, E S. 1987. The Developing World: An Introduction. Wiley `Swindell, Kenneth & Mortimore, M J. 1989. Inequality and Development: Case Studies from the Third World. Macmillan.

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