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WHAT MADE THE AMERICANS EXPAND WESTWARD? Essay, Research Paper

After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, a big sum of land West of the

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original 13 provinces and the Northwest Territory was acquired. The unfastened land,

extra benefits and other bing jobs encouraged Americans to

expand westward. The American people began to recognize that the hereafter of

the state lay in the development of its ain western resources. There were

many grounds that made the people face the grueling and unsafe motion

West, but the primary ground was economic system.

“ Like the Spanish conquistadors before them, the Americans looked beyond

the Mississippi, they saw an unfastened beckoning. Despite the presence of

100s of Indian states with rich and distinguishable civilizations, who had populated

the land for 1000s of years-from the desert of the Southwest and the

grassy prairies of the Great Plains to the high vale of the Rocky

Mountains and the salty beaches of the Pacific Coast-Americans considered the

West to be an empty wilderness. And in less than 50 old ages, from the 1803

purchase of Louisiana Territory to the California gold haste of 1849, the

state would spread out and suppress the West ” ( Herb 3 ) .

The ocean had ever controlled New England & # 8217 ; s involvements and connected it

with the existent universe. Puritanism was still really strong in the North so the

moral integrity of New England was exceeding. Having a really plain population

of English beginning, New England contrasted really much with the other subdivisions.

All this and the fact that they needed to traverse populated provinces in order to

expand west set this subdivision portion from the others ( Leuetenburg and Wishy 37 ) .

New England & # 8217 ; s population compared to other parts was hapless, and the

population growing was even poorer. The trans-Alleghany States by 1820 had a

population of about 2.25 million, while New England had over 1.5 million.

Ten old ages subsequently, western provinces had over 3.5 million with the people

Northwest of the Ohio River entirely totaling 1.5 million.

“ In 1820 the entire population of New England was about to be to the

combined population of New York and New Jersey ; but its addition between 1820

and 1830 was barely three hundred thousand, non much over half that of New

York, and less that of addition of Ohio. If Maine, the turning province of the

group, be excluded, the addition of the whole subdivision was less that of the

frontier province of Indiana ” ( Turner 41 )

Fortunately, new industries help salvage New England from going an

wholly stationary subdivision ( Turner 12 ) . New England & # 8217 ; s transportation industry

became really strong because it had control of impersonal trade during the

European wars. “ Of the exports of the United States in 1820, the statistics

gave to New England about 20 per centum, nine-tenths of which were from

Massachusetts ” ( Turner 11 ) .

Then in a short period of clip, the subdivision witnessed a transportation of the

industrial centre of gravitation from the seaports to the waterfalls, from the

commercialism and pilotage to makers ( Turner 13 ) . “ Water power became

the sites of mill towns, and the industrial revolution which, in the clip

of the trade stoppage, began to reassign industries from the family to the

mill, was quickly carried on ” ( Turner 14 ) . A new category began to develop.

Farmers moved into towns, and their girls began to work in Millss.

Agribusiness, though still really of import to many New England people,

became a worsening involvement. “ By 1830 New England was importing maize and

flour in big measures from other subdivisions. The elevation of cowss and

sheep increased as grain cultivation declined ” ( Turner 46 ) . With the cowss

and sheep raising going more popular, it encouraged out-migration from New

England because it decreased the figure of little farms. “ By the sale of

their lands to wealthier neighbours, the New England husbandmans were able to travel

West with money to put ” ( Turner 15 ) .

The Middle Region, which included New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey,

was a passage zone. It connected the North along with the South and the

E with the West. “ Geographically, they ( the provinces ) lay on the line of

natural paths between the Atlantic on the one side, and the Ohio and the

Great Lakes on the other ” ( Turner 10 ) . Compared to New England, this subdivision

was quickly turning part. By 1830, New York had already equaled the sum

population of full New England combined. Finally, New York and

Pennsylvania would go the most thickly settled provinces in the brotherhood.

About a decennary before 1820, Western New York had showed frontier like

conditions. “ The colonists ( from New England ) felled and burned the forest,

built small towns, and erected Millss, and now, with a excess of

agricultural merchandises, they were enduring from the deficiency of a market and were

demanding transit installations ” ( Leuehtenburg and Wishy 40 ) . With the

already bing paths being undependable and expensive, “ there was a turning

demand for canals? “ ( Turner 32 ) . The Erie and Champlain canals were the

consequence of these demands.

De Witt Clinton saw the economic revolution, which the Erie Canal would

bring. He presented to the legislative assembly the ground that made it practical and

the fiscal program that made it possible. He showed them the vision of the

Hudson River, “ non merely making to the western confines of the province, but

even, by its connexion with Lake Erie, stretching through two thousand stat mis

of navigable lakes and rivers to the really bosom of the inside of the United

States ” ( Turner 32 ) . To him, the Erie Canal was a political every bit good as an

economic project:

“ As a bond of brotherhood between the Atlantic and western provinces, it may forestall

the taking apart of the American Empire. As an organ of communicating

between the Hudson, the Mississippi, the St. Lawrence, the great lakes of the

North and West, and their tributary rivers, it will make the greatest

inland trade of all time witnessed ” ( Turner 32-33 ) .

By 1825, the great canal system opened. With the lessening in

transit charges, it brought, “ prosperity and a tide of population into

western New York ” ( Turner 34 ) . This led to motion West. “ ? small towns sprang

up along the whole like of canal ; the water-power was utilized for

industries? “ ( Turner 35 ) . “ The Great Lakes pilotage grew steadily, the

Western Reserve increased its population, and the seaport of Cleveland became

a centre of trade ” ( Turner 35 ) .

With all the increased population, existent estate value rose. New York

became the city of the North. Valuess of imports rose. They finally

became leaders of exports. “ The province

of New York had by a shot achieved

economic integrity, and its city at one time became the taking metropolis of the

state ” ( Leuehtenburg and Wishy 49 ) .

The southern provinces, dwelling of Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, the

Carolinas, and Georgia. The innovation of the cotton gin finally led to

the enlargement of the people from the seashore to travel inland. The southern provinces

besides finally grew to be inferior to the other provinces, another ground for

the enlargement due west.

The innovation of the cotton-gin by Eli Whitney in 1793 made the

cultivation of cotton profitable. “ The gap of new land in the West after

1812 extend the country available for cotton cultivation ” ( Westward Expansion and

Regional Differences ) . Now that cotton cultivation was profitable “ ? it was

merely a inquiry of clip when the cotton country, no longer limited to the tide

H2O part, would widen to the inside, transporting bondage with it ” ( Turner

45 ) .

The innovation of the cotton gin came at a really fitting clip for the

cotton industry:

“ Already the innovations of Arkwright, Hargreaves, and Cartwright had worked a

revolution in the fabric industries of England, by agencies of the

spinning-jenny, the power-loom, and the mill system, supplying machinery

for the industry of cotton beyond the universe & # 8217 ; s supply ” ( Turner 45 ) .

This demand for cotton pushed all the proprietors of the cotton plantations west

along with all the slaves ( Westward Expansion and Regional Differences ) . “ By

1821 the old South produced one hundred and 17 million lbs, and

five old ages subsequently, one hundred and eighty million lbs ( cotton ) ” ( Turner 46 ) .

But in the following five old ages, late settled sou’-west was catching the

older subdivision. “ By 1834 the sou’-west had distanced the older

subdivision ” ( Turner 147 ) . “ What had occurred was a perennial westbound motion:

the cotton-plant first spread from the seashore to the highlands, and so, by

the beginning of our period, advanced to the Gulf fields, until the part

achieved domination in its production ” ( Turner 47 ) .

But as much of the people moved west, the southern provinces began to turn

inferior to the other subdivisions. “ The westbound migration of its people

checked the growing of the South. It had colonized the new West at the same

clip that the in-between part had been quickly turning in the population and

the consequence was that the proud provinces of the southern seaside was to

numerical lower status ” ( Turner 57 ) .

“ As the motion of capital and population to the interior went on,

wealth was drained from the seashore ” ( Turner 57 ) . As the value of their lands

declined, the people of the south seashore of course sought for an account

and redress to the job ( Turner 61 ) :

“ Alternatively of using a system of scientific agriculture and refilling of the

dirt, there was a inclination for the plantation owners who remained to acquire into debt in

order to add to their ownerships the farms which offered for sale by the

movers. Therefore there was a flow of wealth towards the West of wage for these

new purchases ” ( Turner 61 ) .

It was because of the sudden displacement of labour from farms to towns that

started the due west motion up north. The herding of cowss and sheep took

topographic point of agribusiness. So the proprietors of little farms sold their farms and

moved west. In the in-between part, it was a deficiency of transit and market

that brought along the Erie Canal. After its completion, NY and the remainder of

the in-between part would be connected with the remainder of the inside of the

state. The people began to travel inland along the canal. The innovation of

the cotton gin at a really fitting clip made people of the south push West.

With fabric being a booming industry, people went west to fin available land

to works cotton.

So how were these moves based on economic sciences? Why did the husbandmans of the

north decide to travel west? Was farming profitable any longer? Farming out west

could be even more profitable. “ When wild lands sold for two dollars an

acre, and so, could be occupied by homesteaders about without molestation,

it was certain that colonists would seek them alternatively of paying 20 to

50 dollars and acre for farms that lay non much farther to the

east-particularly when the western lands were more fertile ” ( Turner 73 ) . If

they could happen person to purchase their land, husbandmans would be happier to travel

West to get down a bigger and better farm on more fertile dirt.

The in-between part moved inward along with the canal. With metropoliss like

Cleveland developing inland, and with aid of the canal devising everything

more accessible, colonists moved inward. “ The battle of Baltimore, New York

City and Philadelphia for the lifting commercialism of the inside was powerful

factor in the development of the in-between part ” ( Turner 69 ) . With the lands

being practically free in this huge country, non merely did it pull the

colonist, but it besides furnished the chance for all work forces to hew out their

ain callings ( Turner 68 ) . The unfastened land gave people a opportunity to get down over.

“ The wilderness opened a gate to get away the hapless, the discontented and the

oppressed ” ( Turner 68 ) .

What was the ground behind the motion West of the South? The enlargement

of the South was based on the strong demand for cotton. “ ? the Industrial

Revolution, which made fabric fabricating a large-scale operation, castly

increased the demand for natural cotton ” ( Westward Expansion and Regional

Differences ) . Since the innovation of the cotton gin made the cultivation of

cotton profitable, it was merely a inquiry of happening the land to cultivate

the cotton. All the people had to make was look westward.

What made the people move west? Economicss, land, and chance to

net income were primary factors. With three 1000 stat mis of free and available

land, and the chance to get down a new and better life, and do more money

making it, people packed their bags and moved in.

Herb, Angela M. Beyond the Mississippi: Early Westward Expansion of the

United States. New York: Lodestar Books, 1996.

Leuehtenburg, William E. , and Bernard Wishy, eds Fronteir and Section.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1961.

Turner, Fredrick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York: Holt,

Tinehart, and Winston Inc. , 1962

Turner, Fredrick Jackson. Rise of the New West. New York: Harper and

Brothers Publishers, 1966.

Turner, Fredrick Jackson. The United States 1830-1850. New York: W.W.

Norton & A ; Company Inc. , 1965.

“ Westbound Expansion and Regional Differences. ” An Outline of American

History. Downloaded from AOL. March 27, 1999.

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