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What Is Satire? Essay, Research Paper


What is Satire? Satire is defined as the, literary art of decreasing or minimizing a topic by doing it pathetic and arousing toward it attitudes of amusement, disdain, scorn, or outrage ( Abrams 187 ) . Additionally, a satirist s techniques include irony, rising prices, deflation, irony, semblance and allusion. By overstating features, by stating the antonym of what the writer means, by utilizing his inventiveness to do film editing and even cruel comments at the disbursal of the his topic, the author of sarcasm can name the reader s attending to those things he believes are abhorrent, ugly, or destructive. To better understand the significance of sarcasm, we must grok the two different types of ironists. One likes most people but thinks they are instead unsighted and foolish. He tells the truth with a smiling, so that he will non drive them but bring around them of that ignorance which is their worst destiny. Such is Horace who lived from 65-8 BCE ( Hight 235 ) . The other type hates most people, or despises them. His purpose therefore is non to bring around, but to injure, to penalize, to destruct. Such is Juvenal who lived from 65-128 BCE ( Hight 235 ) . During this clip these were a type of pseudo-religious play but non considered existent dramas because they had no continuity or sustained secret plans ( Britannica 467 ) .In add-on to being two types of ironists there are besides two positions of the intent of sarcasm. First, the optimist writes in order to mend, the pessimist in order to penalize. One is a physician, the other an executioner. A individual writer will compose one sarcasm as an optimist and follow it with a pessimistic writing.In add-on to acknowledging the assorted constituents of sarcasm, analysing Candide and Tartuffe allows us to better understand the double significance of the sarcasm. Satire must be presented in a mode which will convey action, and in a universe of complacent dissemblers, sarcasm, with its assorted agencies of presentation, is indispensable ; the message can non be delivered without it, if that message is to hold any touchable consequence.

An analysis of Voltaire s Candide reveals many satirical elements. Voltaire named the chief character Candide from the Latin significance white, pure, and undefiled. Additionally Candide is pure of psyche, wholly swearing and ever ready to give Pangloss doctrine of optimism another attempt. Candide is such a white inexperienced person that, like Dagwood Bumstead, he ne’er learns anything and so ne’er grows old ( Sawyer 105 ) . The sarcasm here lies in the significance of Candide s name and the fact that he killed three people ; two of whom were priests. Voltaire named Candide s love, Cunegonde, after St. Cunegonde, whom he had mentioned in Annales de cubic decimeter imperium ( 1753-54 ) . St. Cunegonde was the married woman of Henry II, Emperor of Bavaria, who had taken a vow of celibacy. Upon his decease she was restored a virgin to her parents and subsequently canonized in 1200 ( Sawyer 106 ) . Similar to the sarcasm between Candide s name and his actions, Cunegonde was a much traveled and smartly used heroine. A premier illustration of burlesque is Pangloss term for what he teaches metaphysico-theologico-cosmoloonigology ( Adams 1 ) . The crazy that is buried in this burlesque word corresponds to a buried nigaud or dumbbell in the Gallic ( Adams 1 ) . Voltaire deflated the atrociousnesss people perform during war saying these actions were in rigorous conformity with Torahs of war ( Adams 5 ) .

The reader is given the feeling these flagitious Acts of the Apostless were sanctioned when performed in this mode ( Wade 25 ) . Pangloss is inflated to the reader as the best philosopher in the universe mentioning his proven jurisprudence that the possibility of an consequence does non be without a cause. Actually Pangloss knew really small and alternatively twisted all happenings to co-occur with his optimistic beliefs. Pangloss became Candide s optimistic apostle who frequently gave long addresss full of big words and faulty logic. In add-on to Voltaire inflating Pangloss, he satirized his doctrine and verboseness. Pangloss created an semblance for Candide by utilizing his doctrine that is for the best in this universe. We know that the hideous things that happened to Candide was a consequence of his naivete and non Pangloss doctrine. Although Candide had no money, he sits down, when asked, with two Bulgar soldiers dressed in bluish uniforms. They tell Candide that because of his stature of five pess five inches tall he need non pay for his repast and so begged Candide to accept a twosome of Crowns as good. In this scene Voltaire created an allusion. Voltaire knew Frederick the Great, whom he characterized as leader of the Bulgars, obsessed over the tallness of his soldiers.

The recruiting officers of Frederick the Great, much feared in 18th century Europe wore bluish uniforms. Frederick the Great merely accepted work forces six pess tall in his regiments ( Adams 3 ) . Another signifier of sarcasm is imitation. Voltaire exemplifies this with the description of the Baroness. The Baroness was greatly respected non as a consequence of her charitable work but because she weighed 350 lbs. She and her household viewed here non as a mass of useless fat, as would be the instance were she a common man, but a imperial adult female of position. The belief in high quality based non upon character, intelligence, or public presentation is ridiculed throughout the book ( Sareil 124 ) . In Moliere s Tartuffe, Dorine is the queen of irony. In one scene D

orine explains to Orgon, in great item, how ill his married woman became during his absence. Orgon is clearly disinterested in Elmire s status. Each clip Dorine provides an facet sing Elmire s unwellness, Orgon asks a inquiries refering Tartuffe s good being. Wholly digusted Dorine answers, I will travel and state Madame that you ve expressed acute understanding and dying involvement when in fact the reader knows Orgon s ideas are elsewhere ( Wilbur 13 ) . The ground this line is so entertaining is due to Dorine s outspokeness and the fact that she is a retainer.

Knowing how all of Orgon s family disliked Tartuffe, it is clearly verbal sarcasm when Dorine provinces, Monsieur Tartuffe. Now, there s a adult male of weight! ( Wilbur 35 ) This line appears to be a compliment when, in fact, Dorine is connoting the antonym. This application of irony makes Dorine s onslaughts clever and good story. The basic temper of the onslaughts and disapproval demand to be softened to some extent and made more toothsome ; sarcasm serves this terminal by doing the unfavorable judgments entertaining, and even attractive. Tartuffe astutely suggested to Orgon, a married woman can rock her hubby s head in many a elusive manner ( Wilbur 66 ) . Due to the fact that Tartuffe is portrayed as a profoundly spiritual individual, it is impossible that he knows about a adult female s appeals allow entirely talk these words aloud. Voltaire uses insinuation to connote something of a sexual nature and, in bend, allows Tartuffe to retain his saint-like position and power. Innuendo is a valuable tool for the ironist because it allows him to implicate a mark by a wholly indirect onslaught. This is particularly utile when the mark is unsafe, for it is frequently possible for deny the innuendo. In act four, scene five Tartuffe explains off Elmire s apprehensivenesss of holding an matter with him. Tartuffe boasts that Elmire should non be afraid of Heaven s wrath but alternatively go his student and larn how to strike a via media with Heaven on these types of affairs.

The situational sarcasm is derived from the contrast of Tartuffe being Orgon s spiritual counsellor and Tartuffe s sexual feeling for Elmire ( Moore 40 ) . In the same scene the readers know Orgon is concealing under the tabular array, as per Elmire s petition, listening to her and Tartuffe. Tartuffe, nevertheless, believes he is entirely with Elmire and speaks rather candidly about his feelings for her. This dramatic sarcasm is farther enhanced by Elmire s emphasizing certain words which Tartuffe takes for himself, are in real property, addressed to the concealed hubby ( Eustis 26 ) . Tartuffe wears a mask of faith to conceal his sensualness. When he eventually removes the mask in this scene, Orgon sees Tartuffe as the dissembler he truly is ( Bray 54 ) . When Cleante speaks to Orgon about Tartuffe and the injury he is doing, Orgon responds by comparing Cleante with Cato. Cato was a Roman solon ( 95-46 B.C. ) who was known for his honestness and non being bribed or morally corrupted ( Wilbur 16 ) . This historical mention enhances Orgon s point about Cleante the raissoneur, and is an allusion. The deficiency of understanding between what the reader expects and what really happens in the stoping of Tartuffe proves to be dry. The reader is led to believe from old state of affairss, that one time once more Tartuffe ( immorality ) will win over Orgon ( good ) but, in fact, merely the opposite occurs. Orgon receives, through the King s intercession, all that Tartuffe swindled from him and Tartuffe goes to imprison. Functionally this type of dry reversal is normally a sudden, dry turn of the state of affairs against the plotter and attendant reprieve for the victim ; it besides serves as a agency of rising tenseness within the scene ( Bray 70 ) . It is possibly now apparent that about all of these techniques used by Moliere and Voltaire have one component in common: each provides a manner to state two or more things at one clip, and to compare, compare, or contrast those things, normally with heavy sarcasm. As you can see assortment is the key to satire ( Feinberg 12 ) .

Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Footings. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College, 1993. 187.Adams, Robert M. , erectile dysfunction. and trans. Candide or Optimism. New York: Norton, 1991. 1-5. Bray, Rene. World of Imagination. Rev. of Tartuffe. by Moliere. erectile dysfunction. Jacques Guicharnaud. Moliere A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1964 54, 70. Eustis, Alvin. Moliere as Ironic Contemplator. Nederlands: Mouton, 1973. 26. Feinberg, Leonard. A Dictionary of Literary Footings. New York: Doubleday, 1980. 88.Highet, Gilbert. The Anatomy of Satire. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1962. Moore, Will G. Speech. Rev. of Tartuffe. by Moliere. erectile dysfunction. Jacques Guicharnaud. Moliere A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1964. 40. Sareil, Jean. The Comic Writing in Candide. Rev. of Candide. by Voltaire. erectile dysfunction. Renee Waldinger. Approaches to Teaching Voltaire s Candide. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1987. 124-130. Satire. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica: Micropaedia. Vol. 10. Chicago, 1995. 467.Sawyer, Paul. The Names in Candide. Rev. of Candide. by Voltaire. erectile dysfunction. Renee Waldinger. Approaches to Teaching Voltaire s Candide. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1987. 105-106. Wade, Ira O. Voltaire and Candide. Princeton: Princeton U, 1959. 25. Wilbur, Richard. Moliere s Tartuffe. London: Faber, 1964. 13-66.

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