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1. What is computing machine virus?

A virus is a piece of package designed and written to adversely impact your computing machine by changing the manner it works without your cognition or permission. In more proficient footings, a virus is a section of plan codification that implants itself to one of your feasible files and spreads consistently from one file to another. Computer viruses do non spontaneously generate: They must be written and have a specific intent. Normally a virus has two distinguishable maps:

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& # 183 ; Spreads itself from one file to another without your input or cognition. Technically, this is known as self-replication and extension.

& # 183 ; Implements the symptom or harm planned by the culprit. This could include wipe outing a disc, perverting your plans or merely making mayhem on your computing machine. Technically, this is known as the virus warhead, which can be benign or malignant at the caprice of the virus Godhead.

A benign virus is one that is designed to make no existent harm to your computing machine. For illustration, a virus that conceals itself until some preset day of the month or clip and so does nil more than expose some kind of message is considered benign.

A malignant virus is one that attempts to bring down malicious harm to your computing machine, although the harm may non be knowing. There are a important figure of viruses that cause harm due to hapless scheduling and straight-out bugs in the viral codification. A malicious virus might change one or more of your plans so that it does non work, as it should. The septic plan might end abnormally, write wrong information into your paperss. Or, the virus might change the directory information on one of your system country. This might forestall the divider from mounting, or you might non be able to establish one or more plans, or plans might non be able to turn up the paperss you want to open.

Some of the viruses identified are benign ; nevertheless, a high per centum of them are really malignant. Some of the more malignant viruses will wipe out your full difficult disc, or delete files.

What Viruses Do What Viruses Do

Some viruses are programmed specifically to damage the informations on your computing machine by perverting plans, canceling files, or wipe outing your full difficult disc. Many of the presently known Macintosh viruses are non designed to make any harm. However, because of bugs ( programming mistakes ) within the virus, an septic system may act unpredictably.

What Viruses Do n’t Make What Viruses Do n’t Make

Computer viruses do n’t infect files on write-protected discs and do n’t infect paperss, except in the instance of Word macro viruses, which infect lone paperss and templets written in Word 6.0 or higher. They do n’t infect tight files either. However, applications within a tight file could hold been infected before they were compressed. Viruss besides do n’t infect computing machine hardware, such as proctors or computing machine french friess ; they merely infect package.

In add-on, Macintosh viruses do n’t infect DOS-based computing machine package and frailty versa. For illustration, the ill-famed Michelangelo virus does non infect Macintosh applications. Again, exclusions to this regulation are the Word and Excel macro viruses, which infect spreadsheets, paperss and templets, which can be opened by either Windows or Macintosh computing machines.

Finally, viruses do n’t needfully allow you cognize that they are there – even after they do something destructive. [ 1 ]

2. Types of Computer Viruses 2. Types of Computer Viruses
Nowadays figure of viruses is about 55000. It increases invariably. New unknown types of viruses appear. To sort them becomes more and more hard. In common they can be divided by three basic marks: a topographic point of situating, used operation system and work algorithms. For illustration harmonizing these three categorizations virus Chernobyl can be classified as file infector and occupant Windows virus. Further it will be explained what it means. Nowadays figure of viruses is about 55000. It increases invariably. New unknown types of viruses appear. To sort them becomes more and more hard. In common they can be divided by three basic marks: a topographic point of situating, used operation system and work algorithms. For illustration harmonizing these three categorizations virus Chernobyl can be classified as file infector and occupant Windows virus. Further it will be explained what it means.
2.1 A topographic point of being 2.1 A topographic point of being
2.1.1File Infectors 2.1.1File Infectors

These are viruses that attach themselves to ( or replace ) .COM and.EXE files, although in some instances they can infect files with extensions.SYS, .DRV, .BIN, .OVL and.OVY. With this type of virus, clean plans normally become septic when they are executed with the virus in memory. In other instances they are infected when they are opened ( such as utilizing the DOS DIR bid ) or the virus merely infects all of the files in the directory is run from ( a direct infector ) .

There are three groups of file infectors.

Viruss of theforemost group

are called overwriting viruses because they overwrite their codification into infected file wipe outing contents. But these viruses are crude and they can be found really rapidly.

Other group

is called parasitic or pit viruses. Infected file is capable of work to the full or partially but contents of last one are changed. Viruss can copy itself into Begin, center or terminal of a file. They record their codification in informations known non to be used.

Third group

is called comrade viruses. They don & # 8217 ; t alteration files. They make dual of septic file so when septic file is being started a dual file becomes managing, it means virus. For illustration comrade viruses working with DOS usage that DOS foremost runs COM. file and after if this file is non found runs EXE. file. Viruss make dual file with a same name and with extension COM and transcripts itself in this file. During start of septic file DOS runs a COM. file with a virus foremost and so a virus starts an EXE. file.

Erstwhile comrade viruses rename file will be infected and enter their codification in a dual file with old name. For illustration the file XCOPY.EXE is renamed into XCOPY.EXD and virus record itself in file XCOPY.EXE. When this file is started computing machine runs a virus codification foremost and after virus starts original XCOPY, saved as XCOPY.EXD. Viruses like this were found non merely in DOS. They were found in Windows and OS/2.

It is non merely one manner to do dual files. For illustration there is subgroup of comrade viruses called path-companion viruses. They use particular characteristic of DOS – Way: hierarchal record of file location. Virus copies itself in file with the same name but situated one degree higher. In this instance DOS will happen file with virus. [ 2 ]

2.1.2Boot viruses 2.1.2Boot viruses
Boot Sector Infectors Boot Sector Infectors

Every logical thrust, both difficult disc and floppy, contains a boot sector. This is true even of discs that are non bootable. This boot sector contains specific information relating to the data format of the disc, the informations stored there and besides contains a little plan called the boot plan ( which loads the DOS system files ) . The boot plan displays the familiar “ Non-system Disk or Disk Error ” message if the DOS system files are non present. It is besides the plan that gets infected by viruses. You get a boot sector virus by go forthing an septic floppy in a thrust and bring uping the machine. W

hen the boot sector plan is read and executed, the virus goes into memory and infects your difficult thrust. Remember, because every disc has a boot sector, it is possible ( and common ) to infect a machine from a information disc. Note: Both floppy floppies and difficult thrusts contain boot sectors.
Master Boot Record Infectors Master Boot Record Infectors

The first physical sector of every difficult disc ( Side & # 1064 ; , Track & # 1064 ; , Sector 1 ) contains the disc ‘s Master Boot Record and Partition Table. The Master Boot Record has a little plan within it called the Master Boot Program, which looks up the values in the divider tabular array for the get downing location of the bootable divider, and so tells the system to travel at that place and put to death any codification it finds. Assuming your disc is set up decently, what it finds in that location ( Side 1, Track & # 1064 ; , Sector 1 ) is a valid boot sector. On floppy discs, these same viruses infect the boot sectors. You get a Master Boot Record virus in precisely the same mode you get a boot sector virus — by go forthing an septic floppy in a thrust and bring uping the machine. When the boot sector plan is read and executed, the virus goes into memory and infects the MBR of your difficult thrust. Again, because every disc has a boot sector, it is possible ( and common ) to infect a machine from a information disc. [ 3 ]

2.1.3 2.1.3
Multi-partite Viruses Multi-partite Viruses

Multi-partite viruses are a combination of the viruses listed supra. They will infect both files and MBRs or both files and boot sectors. These types of viruses are presently rare, but the figure of instances is turning steadily.

2.1.4 Macro Viruss

Until late, the macro languages included with most applications were non powerful or robust plenty to back up composing an effectual virus. However, many of the more advanced applications that are being developed today include constitutional scheduling capablenesss that rival some of the larger development bundles. This has late been demonstrated by the assorted strains of Microsoft Word viruses, including the alleged Word Concept and Word Nuclear viruses. These viruses transport themselves through Microsoft Word paperss. When opened in Word, they perform assorted actions, including distributing themselves into the user ‘s installing of Word, therefore fixing to infect all future paperss on the system.

An extra concern is that macro viruses can be cross-platform. The Word Concept virus has the claim to celebrity of being the first outstanding cross-platform virus, because it can infect both Windows and Macintosh systems.

Because most application macro languages support go throughing executing to an external shell, such as COMMAND.COM
or CMD.EXE
, the power of the macro virus is non limited to the restraints of the macro linguistic communication itself [ 4 ]
.

2.2 Used operation system.

Any computing machine or net virus can infect files of one or more operation systems: DOS, Windows, OS/2, Linux, MacOS and others. It is a base of this manner of categorization. For illustration virus BOZA working with Windows merely is classified as Windows virus, virus BLISS & # 8211 ; as Linux virus.

2.3 Work algorithms.

Viruss can be differed by used algorithms doing them danger and difficult for catching.

First viruses can be divided on occupant and nonresident.

Resident virus holding come in operation memory of computing machine doesn & # 8217 ; t infect memory. They are capable of copying when they are started merely. We can name any macro virus occupant. They present in memory during application infected by them plants.

Second viruses are seeable and unseeable. To be unseeable agencies that users and antivirus plans can & # 8217 ; t notice alterations of septic file done by virus. Invisible virus gimmicks all requires of operation system to read file and to enter in file and shows clean version of file. So we can see merely & # 8216 ; clear & # 8217 ; plans during virus plants. One of first unseeable file infectors was FRODO and boot infector & # 8211 ; BRAIN.

About any virus utilizations methods of self-coding or polymorphism to get away antivirus plans. It means that they can alter itself. Changing itself helps virus to be able work. [ 5 ]

3. Decision

In decision I would wish to state few words about hereafter of this categorization. Nowadays computing machine engineerings and all package develop really rapidly. It helps new types of computing machine viruses to look. Viruss are going more and more unsafe and & # 8216 ; cleverer & # 8217 ; . It means that viruses can be found more and more difficult. But I think that this categorization can be saved a long clip thank for rules of work of computing machine. It means that this categorization will be changed when computing machines work by rules that differ from rules of von Neiman. So this categorization can be change by adding new subtypes of basic types if virus shapers have created something new.

Buryat State University

The paper: Types of computing machine viruses

Presented by Nefyodov Yuri

Scientific adviser: Sodboyeva L.D.

Ulan-Ude 2003

Abstraction

This paper is about the categorization of computing machine viruses. First, the paper tells what a computing machine virus is, what viruses can make and what they can & # 8217 ; t do. Then there are basic ways of categorization: a topographic point of state of affairs, used operation system and work algorithms. In decision it & # 8217 ; s said about hereafter of categorization.

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Plan

1. What is a computing machine virus?

2. Types of computing machine viruses.

2.1 a topographic point of being

2.1.1 file infectors

2.1.2 boot viruses

2.1.3 multi-partite viruses

2.1.4 macro viruses

2.2 used operation system

2.3 work algorithms

3. Decision.

Mentions:

1. & # 1052 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1105 ; & # 1074 ; , & # 1061 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; , & # 1055 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; & # 171 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 187 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 171 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 187 ; 2000 & # 1075 ;

2. & # 1046 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1083 ; & # 171 ; & # 1053 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; & # 187 ; & # 8470 ; 7 2000 & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ;

3. & # 1089 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1090 ; WWW.SEMANTEC.RU

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WWW.SEMANTEC.RU

& # 1053 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; & # 8470 ; 7 2000 & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; . 100

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& # 1052 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1105 ; & # 1074 ; , & # 1055 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1082 ; , & # 1061 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1048 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1092 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; 2000 & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1076 ; . & # 171 ; & # 1040 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 187 ;

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& # 1053 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1079 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1100 ; & # 8470 ; 7 2000 & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; . 101-102

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