Using Newspaper Advertisem Essay, Research Paper
The 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s are frequently considered three of the most controversial, extremist, and progressive decennaries in American history. Many politically, socially, and economically critical events took topographic point during these epochs that everlastingly transformed America and its citizens. However, while domestic and planetary calamities such as the Great Depression and World War II enabled certain minorities, such as adult females, to accomplish limited societal advancements ( temporarily increasing their figure in the work force and higher rewards ) , it besides provided an chance for the society to reenforce traditional perceptual experiences of adult females. One medium in which this impression is clearly exhibited is in newspaper advertizements. After consistently analysing several newspaper advertizements from the nationally distributed newspaper, the Saturday Evening Post, from three different decennaries, separated from one another by precisely ten old ages get downing with 1925, the pitch and linguistic communication used in these advertizements seemed to back up the thought that despite the historical events that occurred during these clip periods, mainstream advertizements systematically reinforced America s conservative belief that a proper adult female s topographic point was still in the place taking attention of her kids and executing domestic undertakings.
The 1920s, besides known as the Roaring Twenties, produced an epoch of prosperity and good being as the consequence of the 2nd industrial revolution in fabrication. Yet, contrary to this popular word picture, America s increased wealth during this clip was non every bit distributed among its people:
Amid prosperity and advancement, there were big pockets of the state that lagged behind. Progresss in existent income and betterments in the criterion of life for workers and husbandmans were uneven at best. During the 1920s one-fourth of all American workers were employed in agribusiness, yet the farm sector failed to portion in the general prosperity ( Faragher 429 ) .
Consequently, the perceptual experience of wealth being every bit distributed is one of the many misconceptions of the 1920s. Another of import misconception of this clip period is the outgrowth of the New Women, besides known as flappers, and how their presence challenged non merely society s traditional outlooks of adult females, but besides the criterions that defined their muliebrity.
Flappers were one of the many sub-groups that existed at the clip composed of chiefly middle-class adult females whose fiscal security enabled them to take part in activities, such as booze-drinking, cigarette-smoking, have oning knee-length frocks, and coquettish behaviours that were traditionally categorize as tabu to adult females. However, despite this normally shared belief that the development of flappers symbolized a sudden and extremist displacement in mainstream America s perceptual experience of adult females or a relaxation of limitations, it did non. In fact their visual aspect had a really minimum affect on the society as a whole. For the most portion, the American society still promoted and reinforced the conservative stereotypes of adult females as homemakers and domestic retainers. This thought is clearly displayed in many of the 1925 newspaper advertizements from the Saturday Evening Post.
Both the March 21st, 1925 Red Star Oil Stove and the Inlaid Flooring advertizements ( Ad # 1 & A ; 2 ) represent the American society s conservative publicity of the proper adult female. They illustrate the two common domains that adult females in the 1920s were expected to make full and keep: child-rearing and cookery. While the Red Star Oil Stove advertizement expressed society s outlooks of a married adult female to take attention of her kids by doing certain they are decently groomed and educated ( the advertizement show that she is reading to her boy ) , the Inlaid Flooring advertizement promoted the thought that adult females should non reject their domestic lives but seek comfort and joy out of it ( the apparent smiling on the adult female s face as she proudly carryies a bar she had baked ) :
By the terminal of the decennary, the magazines [ and newspaper advertizements ] were jointing what historian William Chafe calls an luxuriant political orientation in favour of place and matrimony. [ Furthermore ] Women s magazines advised her [ adult females ] non to reject muliebrity but to bask it, to near domesticity with a positive mentality ( Woloch 409, 411 ) .
Therefore, these advertizements straight linked a adult female s muliebrity to her ability to execute suitably in both of these critical domains.
Newspaper advertisements farther reinforced the domestication of adult females in 1925 by specifically aiming females to purchase home-related merchandises that would in one manner or another ease their day-to-day undertakings. To progress this thought, advertizers used tricky pitches such as thoroughness of cleansing and saves her the arm-aching force per unit area in advertizements for merchandises like Eureka Vacuum Cleaner and Sunbeam Iron ( Ad # 4 & A ; 5 ) . Furthermore, these advertizements besides tried to appeal to adult females and subconsciously advance the society s belief that domestic undertakings such as vacuuming and ironing apparels are activities specifically reserve for adult females by picturing adult females, non work forces, executing these sexist choirs ( Ad # 3, 4, & A ; 5 ) .
By 1935, America s greatest economic catastrophe, now referred to as the Great Depression, had lingered for more than six old ages. Everyone in the state felt the economic effects of this calamity. Womans were one of the groups most affected by the depression. While the Great Depression provided minor societal and political advancement for adult females, such as increasing the figure of adult females in the work force, their accomplishments were limited. Although the annihilating economic phenomenon enabled adult females to fall in the American labour market in increasing Numberss, sexual stereotyping routinely forced adult females into low-paying and low position occupations ( Faragher 457 ) .
More significantly, the Great Depression hindered adult females in two other of import ways conveying their effort to redefine their function in society to a complete arrest and supplying a context for the ideological support that a adult female s topographic point is at place ( Woloch 331 ) .
By 1935 over one-fourth of the labour force was without occupations. Work force, who were considered the primary breadwinners for their households and the exclusive protagonist, occupied many of these occupations. But as the Great Depression emerged, it devastated many male self-importances, coercing them to oppugn their manhood and their ability to supply for
their households. In order to increase their morale, society promoted the thought that occupations should be reserved for male breadwinners and that adult females should non vie with work forces for the staying scarce occupations. Newspaper advertisements from 1935 reflected these concerns and supported the statement that a adult female s sphere should be limited to her place.
Ads such as Campbell Vegetable Soup ( Ad. # 6 ) and Grunow Refrigerator ( Ad. # 7 ) exemplified the rhetoric of the 1930s. The messages of these advertizements are really simple and direct adult females belong at place. While the Campbell Soup advertizement appeared to demo how conservative the society truly was, as illustrated by the conservativeness of the adult female s garb and composure of her behaviour, the Grunow Refrigerator advertizement specifically called out adult females to utilize good motherly inherent aptitudes in taking the right icebox because one of their most of import concerns in life should be the protection of their kids. Therefore, a proper adult female would take a Grunow Refrigerator because it is a super-safe icebox.
Not merely did advertizements in 1935 reveal America s stronger than of all time support of conservative thoughts refering the function of adult females as female parents and care-takers, it besides reinforced their other map as domestic retainers. Bon Ami Powder ( Ad. # 8 ) and Scot Towel ( Ad. # 9 ) typified this tendency. Both these advertizements depict adult females as happy homemakers who truly transporting out their domestic activities, such as cleaning the bathroom and kitchen, but the Bon Ami Powder advertizement went beyond this. The adult female portrayed in this shining and cleansing advertizement bares great resemblance to a hired aid or retainer. The deficiency of a little chapeau is the lone noticeable point that would divide the two from one another. Therefore, adult females during this decennary ( and the decennaries before the 1930s ) were non considered merely as female parents but besides lasting live-in domestic retainers.
Many Americans consider the 1940s as one of the most of import and influential decennaries in American history for merely approximately every American including adult female. The 1940s was non merely a extremely politically charged clip but besides a socially and economically altering period. America s eventual engagement in World War II in 1941 ( which began in 1939 ) brought an terminal to the depression. However, when the United States abolished its neutrality stance and allied with the Allies to contend against the Alliance, it was wholly unprepared to take part in a war of such magnitude. To demo that it was dedicated to fixing itself for war, the United States authorities spent over 53 billion dollars ( The Homefront ) . Thus it was evident that the America had greatly shifted the focal point of its production, from autos to armored combat vehicles and weaponries. Therefore, the combination of the monolithic authorities disbursement along with mobilisation attempts of everyone who could in one signifier or another contribute to the war resulted in legion occupations and high rewards, two of the critical characteristics in a heartfelt way missed during the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Womans excessively were drawn into the work force in record Numberss to assist make full some of the occupations traditionally occupied by work forces before the war, such as auto company workers ( Ad. # 15 ) . In fact over six million married and single adult females joined the labour force during World War II: The eruption of belligerencies abroad generated an unprecedented demand for new workers to replace work forces gone to contend the war increasing the size of the female labour force by 57 per centum ( Chafe 11 ) . Although the 2nd planetary war gave many adult females an chance to acquire out of the house and into the work force, this freshly acquired freedom was explicitly checked and monitored. Womans were frequently reminded that their freedom was impermanent and that one time the war was over, they were expected to give up their occupations and return place to restart their function as homemakers and domestic retainers. This impression was repeatedly expressed in many staged and televised interviews. Another social concern that was a direct consequence of the enormous rise of adult females in the labour force was the fright that by adult females go forthing the place and working in occupations normally reserved for work forces, they would be someway de-feminize them.
This fright of adult females take parting in the labour force resulted in de-feminization was countered by newspaper advertizements that reminded them of their muliebrity. These implicit in subjects are blatantly illustrated in many 1945 advertizements. The sexualization of adult females as a agency of reenforcing muliebrity is really noticeable in advertizements for merchandises such as Scotch Tape, Fomfit bandeau, and Mojud Hosiery ( Ad. # 10, 11, & A ; 12 ) . Unlike the traditional conservative portraiture of adult females in advertizements in the 1920s and 1930s, newspaper advertizements in the 1940s, fliping an array of consumer merchandises, normally pictured immature, attractive, sexily dressed adult females in really provocative airss and positions.
Furthermore, while the mass media of newspaper advertizements attempted to reenforce adult females s muliebrity in provocative ads, it besides tried to remind society that adult females are besides sexy sexual animals and objects of male s desires. Nowhere was this impression better characterized than in merchandise advertizements for Jergens Lotion and Coca-Cola ( Ad. # 13 & A ; 14 ) . The Jergens Lotion ad attempted to advance the attraction of adult females in general and how desirable they are, particularly when they have silky-soft custodies, as demonstrated by the lower illustration in the advertizement. While the Jergens Lotion ad tried to reenforce adult females being sexually appealing, the Coca-Cola ad seemed to progress the thought that adult females were work forces s focal point of desires. This is really evident after analyzing the facial looks of all the work forces in the ad, peculiarly the facial looks and postural stance of the crewman.
It is evident that advertizements from merely about any mass media beginning can state us many things about a peculiar society, from its gustatory sensation to its sentiments. Newspaper advertisements from the Saturday Evening Post provided an priceless tool for analyzing the conservative outlooks of adult females in the society. The newspaper advertisements showed that despite popular beliefs, the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s were non enormously radical periods that transformed society s perceptual experience of adult females. In fact, it is rather arguable to proclaim that these eras farther reinforced America s position of adult females as homemakers and domestic retainers.