Blood is a specialised bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the organic structure ‘s cells ; such as foods and O. It besides transports waste merchandises off from those same cells. In craniates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in a liquid called blood plasma.
”Plasma is an aqueous solution in which a great assortment of solutes are dissolved. These solutes include metabolic waste, proteins, little foods and electrolytes. ” ( Cindy L. Stanfield, 2011 )
The blood cells present in blood are chiefly ruddy blood cells ( besides called red blood cells ) and white blood cells, including leucocytes and thrombocytes. The plasma represents 55 % of the whole blood volume, leucocytes and thrombocytes represent 1 % of the whole blood volume and erythrocytes represent 45 % of the whole blood volume. The most abundant cells in craniate blood are ruddy blood cells. These contain haemoglobin ;
The definition of hemoglobin:
”Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the ruddy blood cells of all craniates. ” ( Maton, Anthea, 1993 )
The major map of red blood cells is to transport O and C dioxide in the blood. Such conveyance is critical for the bringing of O from the lungs to respiring cells, where it is removed from the organic structure. Red blood cells have a high capacity for transporting O and C dioxide because they contain in their cytol two proteins ; Haemoglobin and carbonaceous anhydrase. Haemoglobin binds, and therefore conveyances, O and C dioxide, whereas carbonaceous anhydrase is indispensable for the conveyance of C dioxide merely.
HemoCue is a portable haemoglobinometer where any blood beginning can be used such as blood from a capillary, vena or an arteria. The cuvette will roll up the exact sum of blood and blend it with the reagents. Consequences appear on a screen exposing the red blood cell count.
The entire volume of blood in a normal healthy grownup is about 5.5 liters. About 3 liters will dwell of plasma and 2.5 liters will dwell of red blood cells. Leukocytes and thrombocytes are besides included. The fractional part of red blood cells to the blood volume is called the hematocrit:
”The hematocrit ( Ht or HCT ) or packed cell volume ( PCV ) is the proportion of blood volume that is occupied by ruddy blood cells. It is usually approximately 48 % for work forces and 38 % for adult females. ” ( Purves, William K. , 2004 )
The hematocrit can be affected by factors such as erythrocyte size and figure, nevertheless, in mammals ; hematocrit is normally independent of organic structure size.
A haemocytometer can be used for:
‘Counting of blood cells… specially designed slides have Chamberss of known deepness with an engraved grid on the bottom chamber. ” ( Willey, J.M. , 2008 )
Fig. 1: Neubauer numbering chamber ( haemocytometer )
The purposes of this experiment were to see and separate between the formed elements of blood utilizing the light microscope and to do blood cell counts of the ruddy blood cells ( red blood cells ) in a blood sample.
Methods and Materials
One alteration that occurred, that was non stated in the methods was that the blood that was used for the experiment was disposed of by rinsing it down the sink. Besides heparinised capillary tubings were used.
All other methods and processs were followed as stated in the practical brochure.
For full method, delight mention to 4LFS0029, Human physiology, practical brochure, pp 14-17.
Fig. 2: The given mention ranges for a rat, human male and human female
Determination of ruddy cell count ( RCC )
From the Neubauer haemocytometer, the undermentioned ruddy cell counts were counted:
Table 1: Consequences of the Neubauer haemocytometer
Position of square in the cardinal block
Number of ruddy blood cells
Entire = 687
The figure of red blood cells in one liter of blood = Number of cells ten 1010
= 687 ten 1010
= 6.87 ten 1012/litre blood
Comparing this value with the standard human hematologic indices, the value that has been calculated is about dual the lower terminal of the standard hematologic indices for the human male and female. However, comparing the value to the standard rat hematologic indices, it lays closer to the lower terminal, although it is still within scope.
Determination of hemoglobin ( Hb )
The finding of hemoglobin was carried out via the ‘Hemocue haemoglobinometer ‘ .
The consequences obtained for hemoglobin was a figure of 171g/litre.
Comparing this value with the criterion values for human blood, it is apparent that the value is within the scope for the human male ; nevertheless it lies outside of the scopes for a human female. For the scope of values for a rat, the value of 171g/litre is precisely 10g/litre over the maximal scope.
Determination of hematocrit ( Hct )
The per centum of a blood sample that was occupied by the red blood cells after centrifugation in a heparinised capillary tubing was 49 % . Converting this per centum to SI units:
For human males and females this value lies within both of their scopes. The value besides lies within the normal scope for a rat ; nevertheless, it lies towards the higher terminal.
Mean corpuscular Haemoglobin ( MCH )
MCH is the haemoglobin content of a individual cell measured in absolute units alternatively of mention to an arbitrary Hb content and cell count. The undermentioned expression was used to find MCH:
MCH = Hb/RCC ( where Hb and RCC are in SI units )
= 171/6.87 ten 1012
= 2.48 ten 10-11
= 24.8 ten 10-12
The MCH value does non lie within either the human male or female values, it is excessively low. It is, nevertheless, within the scope for the rat values, towards the lower terminal.
Mean Cell Volume ( MCV )
The size of an red blood cell can be calculated from the undermentioned expression:
Mean cell volume = PCV/RCC ( when PCV and RCC are in SI units )
= 0.49/6.87 ten 1012
= 7.13 ten 10-14
= 71.3 ten 10-15
The figure of 71fl does non lie within the human male or female scopes, it does, nevertheless lie within the rat scope.
Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration ( MCHC )
The MCHC is a step of the mean hemoglobin carried by a liter of blood. It can be calculated from the undermentioned expression:
MCHC = Hb/Hct
This value lies within the scope for both human males and females and it besides lies within the scope for rats.
Differential White Cell Count
Microscope was set at x40 magnification. The undermentioned white blood cells were observed and their sizes were noted.
Fig. 3: Drawings of the white blood cells observed under microscope
Table 1 in the consequences subdivision shows the consequences that were obtained from the Neubauer haemocytometer. A sum of 687 ruddy blood cells were counted from the five Chamberss. It can hence be calculated that in one liter of the rat ‘s blood there were 6.87 ten 1012/litre blood of red blood cells present. This figure fits good into the mention ranges for the rat ; nevertheless it is besides apparent from the figure that the sum of red blood cells in one liter of the rat ‘s blood is towards the lower terminal of the scopes. The sample of blood that was given from the rat shows that for any human male or female, the rat will ever hold double the sum of red blood cells of the lower terminal of the human scopes.
A figure of 171g/litre was obtained for the hemoglobin ( Hb ) value. This figure does non lie within either of the rat nor the human female mention ranges ; it does, nevertheless, prevarication in the mention scope of the human male. The maximal sum of hemoglobin that is normal for a rat is 161 g/litre, and the figure of 171 g/litre is over the maximal. A high sum of hemoglobin could ensue in a status called Fe overload. This high sum of hemoglobin could be due to the rat ‘s diet ;
”Experimental chronic Fe overload was produced in rats by feeding them a Zhou diet ” ( A J Dabbagh, T Mannion, S M lynch and B Frie )
The above statement shows that Fe overload can be produced due to what diet a rat has. The same statement could use to a human female as the maximal normal scope of hemoglobin is 165 g/litre. This could perchance be eliminated by holding a healthier diet.
After centrifugation of the rat ‘s blood, it was determined that the hematocrit value of the rat ‘s blood was 0.49l/l. This value fits into the rat ‘s mention scope and besides into both the human male and female mention ranges. This value is, nevertheless, towards the higher terminal of the mention ranges in both rats and human females.
”Higher than normal hematocrit degrees can be seen in people populating at high heights. Dehydration produces a falsely high hematocrit that disappears when proper fluid balance is restored. ” ( Harrison ‘s Principles of Internal Medicine, McGraw-Hill, edited by Eugene Braunwald, et. al. , 2001. )
From the above, it could be concluded that the high hematocrit value for the rat is due to desiccation and its home ground. However, gender and age are besides subscribers to high hematocrit values, another factor to see.
The value of 25pg calculated for the Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin ( MCH ) does non lie within the mention ranges of neither the human male nor the human female as it is excessively low. Refering the rat ‘s blood sample it did suit within the mention scope, towards the lower terminal of the scope. The average corpuscular hemoglobin represents the weight of hemoglobin in an mean red blood cell. Lower values of average corpuscular hemoglobins are normally diagnosed in certain types of anemia such as microcytic and normocytic anemia.
The size of an red blood cell was calculated from the mean cell volume ( MCV ) . It was found from the consequences that the mean cell volume of the sample of rat ‘s blood has 71fl of blood. This value does non fit the mention ranges of the human male or female but it is within the mention scope of the mouse. If 71fl was the value obtained from a human or female this would be significantly lower than the minimal scope of 80 and therefore they would be diagnosed with microcytosis which consequences in Excess EDTA which is hypertonic and can do cellular desiccation which in bend decreases the average cell volume and increases the average corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.
The average corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is a step of the mean hemoglobin carried by a liter of blood. The value that was obtained for this computation was 348.98 which lie good within all the mention ranges of the rat, the human male and female. The mention ranges for the rat, human male and female were of the same boundaries. Elevated MCHC is associated with Spherocytosis
”Spherocytosis is an auto-hemolytic anaemia, characterized by the production of red blood cells, that are sphere-shaped, instead than bi-concave disc shaped. ” Robert S. Hillman ( 2005 ) .
Normal MCHC is associated with baneful anemia which is caused by the inability to absorb vitamin B12.
Mentions – retrieve to set in alphabetical order
Maton, Anthea ; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright ( 1993 ) . Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall.
Cindy L. Stanfield, 4th edition Principles of human physiology, benzoin Edward Estlin Cummingss, international edition 2011, page 437
Purves, William K. ; David Sadava, Gordon H. Orians, H. Craig Heller ( 2004 ) . Life: The Science of Biology ( 7th ed. ) . Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. pp.A 954.
Willey, J.M. , Sherwood, L.M. & A ; Woolverton, C.J. ( 2008 ) . Microbiology. ( 7th ed. ) . McGraw-Hill. P 128
Biochem J. 1994 June 15 ; 300 ( pt3 ) :799-803 the consequence of Fe overload on rat plasma and liver oxidizer position in vivo. ( A J Dabbagh, T Mannion, S M lynch and B Frie )
Harrison ‘s Principles of Internal Medicine, McGraw-Hill, edited by Eugene Braunwald, et. al. , 2001
Robert S. Hillman ; Kenneth A. Ault ; Henry M. Rinder ( 2005 ) . Hematology in clinical pattern: a usher to diagnosis and direction. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp.A 146-150