“In constructing a public personality the gesture image industry has perfected the device of pigeonholing its stars. The star system is based on the premiss that a star is accepted by the populace in footings of a certain set of personality traits which permeate all of his or her movie functions. The successful stars have been those whose entreaty can be catalogued into a series of such traits. associations and mannerisms” ( Gledhill: 1991: 40 ) . This statement can easy be applied to Marilyn Monroe because she was loved for her glamor and beauty every bit good as the “girl following door” character. Even now after her decease. she is still merely as. possibly even more. successful in the present. Marilyn Monroe was the prototype of pulchritudinous but beauty is merely skin deep as it does non ever equal a epicurean life. Hollywood itself even admitted that they created false narratives to fuel their promotion and they tended to make with some stars more on a regular basis than others. Marilyn Monroe is one of the more obvious illustrations as Hollywood portrayed her as being the ultimate glamor cunt and sex graven image but her life was darker and more troubled than the perfect life we were to believe she led. Whilst some of the advertizements for ‘Some Like It Hot’ described Jack Lemmon and Tony Curtis as being Monroe’s ’bosom companions’ . “Curtis was to talk subsequently of Marilyn’s ‘vicious arrogance’ and ‘vindictive selfishness’…kissing Marilyn. he vouchsafed. was ‘like caressing Hitler’” ( Summers. Angstrom: 1985: 177 ) .
On the other manus. “Dr Milton Gottlieb. who gave Marilyn gynecological attention says ‘she was insecure. frightened of the world of life. A really disturbed immature woman’” ( ibid: 147 ) . These two sides of the seemingly unflawed actress were because she thought she had inherited schizophrenic disorder from her female parent and this was a job for Hollywood. They had to make this surrogate character for one of their biggest stars to maintain the attractive force to their movies. Marilyn was born Norma Jeane Baker and in the mid 1940’s. she was offered a standard six-month contract with a get downing wage of $ 125 per hebdomad. Ben Lyon. a twentieth Century Fox executive. did non like her name and chose “Carole Lind” as a phase name. after Jenny Lind and Carole Lombard. but it was decided that it was non an appropriate. It was when Norma Jeane was invited to pass the weekend with Lyon at his place that they decided to happen her a new name. Following her idol Jean Harlow. Norma Jeane decided to take her mother’s inaugural name of Monroe.
“Jeane Monroe” was ab initio chosen but Lyon felt that there were excessively many actress’s with the name Jean. or a fluctuation of it. Desiring a more alone name Lyon suggested Marilyn noticing that she reminded him of Marilyn Miller. the 1920’s Broadway actress. Norma Jeane was ab initio hesitating due to Marilyn being the contraction of the name Mary Lynn. a name she did non like. Lyon. nevertheless. felt that the name “Marilyn Monroe” was sexy and had a “nice flow. ” and therefore Norma Jeane Baker took the name Marilyn Monroe. This immature lady was unnaturally constructed by Hollywood by heightening her expressions. Her hair was transformed from a mousey brown to a Pt blonde which so stereotyped her as the “dumb blonde” in the movies she made. . The typecasting of Monroe’s “dumb blonde” character limited her calling chances. so she broadened her scope. She studied at the Actors Studio and formed Marilyn Monroe Productions.
Her public presentation in “Bus Stop” was hailed by critics. and she won a Golden Globe for her public presentation in “Some Like it Hot” . Despite this stereotype and unreal building of her individuality. Monroe would go to moving category and pay heavy attending to the things said because she felt an tremendous demand to make better. This is the entire antonym of the dense blonde that she is portrayed as. Ironically she is being instead intelligent by larning how to play a dense character. In “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” and “How to Marry a Millionaire” . Monroe is characterised as being a ‘gold-digger’ every bit good as the ‘dumb blonde’ in which she appears to demo really low intelligence and has no end in life but to hold a rich hubby and plentifulness of jewelry. in which she demonstrates by singing ‘Diamonds are a girl’s best friend’ in “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” .
After shooting these though. she was quoted in the New York Times as stating “I want to turn and develop and play serious dramatic parts. My dramatic manager. Natasha Lytess. Tells everybody that I have a great psyche. but so far nobody’s interested in it. ” Soon after. she asked to star in “The Egyptian” . as she saw this as a opportunity to interrupt free from her stereotypic character but she was refused a screen trial. perchance because they thought she was non various plenty to play such a character. The secret plan line for “The Seven Itch” is a playful apposition as her co-star. Tom Ewell. plays a bi-polar character in the movie opposite a movie star who is really enduring from the same mental status. This is the movie that most people remember Marilyn Monroe from because it features one of the most iconic Hollywood minutes of all clip.
It is the scene where the air from a metro grate blows her skirt over her caput. Marilyn was married for the first clip to James Dougherty on June 19. 1942. He claimed that he was the 1 who invented the “Marilyn Monroe” character and that their matrimony failed because she was lured off by the promises of stardom in Hollywood. He besides claimed that Marilyn’s female parent asked him to get married her so she could prosecute her dream and non be returned to the orphanhood. 2 old ages subsequently. she married once more on January 14. 1954 to Joe DiMaggio but the matrimony merely last 274 yearss on which she blamed “mental cruelty” as the ground for divorce. She told friends that he was nescient towards her when they were together and he was besides really cold in his attitude. Her matrimony to DiMaggio could hold contributed to her mental province as she craved love and security in her life. On June 29. 1956. Monroe married dramatist Arthur Miller. whom she foremost met in 1950. and this seemed to be her most stable relationship. However. by 1960 their matrimony was beyond fix and they shortly filed for divorce which was granted on January 24. 1961.
The most talked about of all her relationships though were that of her and John. F Kennedy. the president at the clip. It was rumoured that she had an matter with him during the 1960’s but he had ended the matter when she was invariably calling the White House as she had the thought of being married to him in the hereafter. This was to so worsen her mental province even more and sent her into a spiral of depression before her decease. Marilyn suffered from strong emotional hurting because she was diagnosed with Bi polar upset or some people refer to it as frenzied depression. The changing of her name represents her disconnected personality of being the ultimate glamor graven image and this frenzied depressive that easy took over the terminal of her life. In a manner. she was a sort of “Jekyll and Hyde” because one twenty-four hours she could be highly despicable and difficult to work with but the following she could execute in the manner that made her the ultimate Hollywood fable that she is.
Changing her name symbolises her seeking to get away her yesteryear. Marilyn ever denied that Edward Mortenson was her male parent and she was ever worried that she would inherit her mother’s schizophrenic disorder so altering her birth name is like her seeking to bury the yesteryear and attempt to get away her concerns. During her childhood when her female parent was sectioned in a mental place and Norma Jean was moved to and from many surrogate places. She was seemingly sexually assaulted during this period and her mother’s mental province was to frighten her for the remainder of her life. One of her doctors. Dr Elliott Corday one time said “there were more suicide efforts than were known. And by 1954. she was utilizing drugs- I think the difficult material every bit good as the kiping pills” ( ibid: 147 ) . She was besides known to hold had many abortions during her acting calling. possibly every bit many as 20 but it was ne’er documented how many because the pattern was illegal at the clip so no 1 knows the exact sum. Despite this. Marilyn was numerously heard to state she wanted kids. but more so a household because she needed the support that they would convey.
Even though she had the many abortions and abortions. she ever longed for a kid. trusting that it would quiet her mental attitude and the darker side that the populace would non see. This split personality that Marilyn would expose to the universe and those behind the scenes and in her personal life would take person to do the statement that “Marilyn was a mass of contradictions and a kept woman of transformation” ( ibid: 49 ) . . Monroe was highly homophobic and could non stand any state of affairs that resembled any intimation of this. One clip a friend of hers decided to dye a little part of her hair the same coloring material as Marilyn’s but Monroe took this as her wanting to be like her which meant to her that it was some signifier of sexual laterality. Ironically. Marilyn Monroe has now become one of the biggest cheery icons of all clip. Her closest friends were the 1s who saw the deepness of her job and how troubled the star was. William Travilla recalled “’she was speaking to herself into the thought that she was traveling mad’ Travilla says. Marilyn’s fright of inheriting mental unwellness. prompted by her household history. was now a perennial worry” ( ibid: 101 ) .
The concern of inheriting schizophrenic disorder independently affected her work as it would take her many takes to make even merely one sentence and Hollywood started to doubt the public presentation of their biggest star. “Marilyn frequently scribbled her ideas and moving notes in a note book. ‘What am I afraid of? ’ One nosiness crew member read in the book. ‘I know I can move. But I’m afraid. I am afraid and I should non be and I must non be. Shit! ’” ( ibid: 148 ) . On the set of “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” she showed her dedication and committedness to better herself as she would remain tardily to pattern her dance and vocalizing modus operandis but because of this she would turn up tardily for shooting in the forenoon. The manager of the movie. Howard Hawks. noticed that she started to remain in her dressing room excessively much due to present fright and had to inquire her co-star. Jane Russell to escort her to the set for her to work. This behavior seems a small odd for the character that Hollywood had portrayed her as but even Howard Hawks had said himself that she was really diffident but made up for it in intelligence.
Marilyn’s moving instructor. Lee Strasberg recalled. “I saw that what she looked like was non what was what she truly was. and what was traveling on interior was non what was traveling on exterior. and that ever intend there may be something at that place to be working with. It was about as if she had been waiting for a button to be pushed. and when it was pushed a door opened and you saw a hoarded wealth of gold and jewels” ( Ibid: 129 ) . Some said that even though she was troubled mentally. it was this that gave her the glare that created her calling. However. While Monroe was analyzing on the acting class. Lee Strasberg noticed her terrible phase fear but her sincere attitude to her surveies so he commented. “I have worked with 100s and 100s of histrions and actresses. and there are merely two that stand out manner above the remainder.
Number one is Marlon Brando. and the 2nd is Marilyn Monroe. ” ( Ibid: 145 ) After doing “The Seven Year Itch” Marilyn decided to go forth twentieth Century Fox to make Marilyn Monroe Productions. she would shortly return but merely when she had negotiated a new contract that had met her demands. “’The star system has got manner out of hand’ said fox Executive Vice-President Peter Levathes ‘We let the inmates run the refuge and they’ve practically destroyed it’ . He was talking three yearss after Marilyn’s dismissal. as ‘Something’s got to Give’ collapsed in a storm of recriminations and lawsuits” ( ibid: 274 ) . Despite this. a few yearss before her decease. she was in negotiations for a trade to do more movies because Hollywood could non replace her with anyone every bit great as her. Recently. she was voted the 6th greatest female star of all clip so it goes to demo that Marilyn knew how to utilize her endowment and the star system sagely. Her concluding incomplete movie. “Something’s got to Give” . became of the most talked about Hollywood movies because of the complications that unravelled.
Marilyn’s repute for being difficult to work with shone through and out of 30 yearss of cinematography. she merely showed up for 13 yearss to work. During the devising of the movie. she booked a twenty-four hours off shooting to travel to President John F. Kennedy’s birthday at which she would sing happy birthday to him. the most memorable minute captured on telecasting. Fox urged her non to travel because she was already proving their forbearance with non turning up for work but still. she went and managed to still remain employed because she was such a large star. She was thought to be out of control by the movie company but despite this. she was still a bankable star. Throughout the dark she was made a running gag about how unpunctual she as and when she eventually arrived. she was introduced as “the late Marilyn Monroe” . She was shooting on the twenty-four hours of her 36th birthday. which is considered the “watershed” twelvemonth for an actress. so she began to worry that she would be replaced by a younger adult female.
Her birthday party that she had on set was a really modest one where she shared bar with the crew members and had a really low cardinal jubilation. This is far from the glamourous life style she was believed to invariably populate and this was in comparing to the munificent thirtieth birthday party of Elizabeth Taylor with was reported to be around $ 1 million dollars on the set of “Cleopatra” in Rome. She left the set that twenty-four hours looking every bit happy as of all time but underneath the unreal smiling. she was dissembling the hurting of her concerns and the yearning for kids she had ever craved. The two kid histrions she worked with on the set of “Something’s got to Give” distressingly reminded her of the abortions she had in old old ages.
Soon plenty. Fox’s forbearance was tested to the bound with Marilyn non turn up for work and she was fired. It caused contention within Hollywood and she was afraid her calling was over so she set up a few exposure shoots over 3 yearss to turn out to the universe that she was still as beautiful and powerful as when she foremost entered Hollywood. She was opposing her gender. power and celebrity against Hollywood after being fired to seek to do a enormous semen back. She was successful and a twosome of yearss subsequently. Marilyn signed a $ 1 million dollar contract to do 2 more movies and to re-start the cinematography of “Something’s got to Give” . This proved she had power over Hollywood and that she was the ultimate domination.
Despite this. the clefts were get downing to demo through the frontage and Hollywood could no longer maintain up the portraiture of Monroe’s glamor. It was going good known to the universe of her problems and shortly plenty after she was reinstated in “Something’s got to Give” . Marilyn was found dead in her place after an evident overdose. “Her life henceforth was to teeter-totter between esthesis and unhappiness. with all the universe watching” ( ibid: 61 ) . Hollywood building was so unreal that even the people around her did non even anticipate this as she was seemingly cheerful in the clip before her decease.
•Gledhill. Degree centigrade: 1991: Stardom: Industry of Desire: New York: Routledge
•Summers. A: 1985: Goddess: The Secret lives of Marilyn Monroe: London: Victor Gollancz Ltd