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We know that parachute is used to set down something from a high height safely. Parachute may hold different size, form and besides holes on the parachute sheath. There must be the best parachute for set downing a nutrient during war, for free autumn and besides for a presentation. This probe will happen the consequence of size, form and holes on landing of parachutes.

A parachute is basically a device that is used to decelerate down the velocity or gesture of an object. A parachute is typically used through atmosphere by making a force called anti-gravitational force that counters the gravitative force. A parachute can besides supply stableness as it creates a retarding force when falling.[ 1 ]

Literally, ‘parachute ‘ is derived from the word ‘para ‘ and ‘chute ‘ which means against and falls severally. This word originates from Ancient Greek and French. The first soft parachute was invented in 1973 but the event was non witnessed. It was developed by Blanchard utilizing silk. Up until that point, parachutes were all made with stiff frames.[ 2 ]

1.3 THE IDEA OF THE INVESTIGATION

A recent telecasting plan “ Backyard Science ” on TVIQ in Astro Channel had tried an experiment on parachute. The experiment was based on normal competition of soft set downing. They figured how to set down an egg from a high topographic point to the land without damaging the egg.

The experiment in the show triggered me to happen more about parachutes. I watched several pictures on parachutes and realized that parachutes have different forms. I wanted to look into how forms affect the manner parachutes land. While shoping through the cyberspace, I found out that there are holes on parachutes. So I start to do an experiment on parachutes by utilizing simple baskets as the burden and refuse plastic bags as the parachutes. I personally create the parachutes and vary the forms with unit of ammunition, trigon and square. The figure and size of holes are besides created consequently.

2.0 RESEARCH Question

The research inquiry for this Extended Essay is to happen the right form of the parachute for the best soft landings with the least scattering from the targeted topographic point of set downing together with the ideal figure of holes needed and the right size of the holes.

3.0 HYPOTHESIS

My Drawn-out Essay is about bring forthing a parachute that can set down the longest clip so that the clip of impact is increased by making the most air opposition. In add-on, the parachute must set down on the targeted topographic point which is really perpendicular to where the parachute is launched.

The initial premise is that, the bigger the surface country of the parachute, the more air opposition it produced to make a retarding force on the parachute. Consequently, the clip taken for the parachute to land is increased. This is for the first feature of my parachute.

The 2nd feature is to do the parachute land on the targeted topographic point which is perpendicular to the topographic point where the parachute is launched. The premise made is that, by making holes, it may cut down somewhat the air opposition, therefore the parachute will roll less and falls about vertically. The more holes are created, the more exact the parachute will fall at the targeted topographic point. The same instance applies when the size of the holes is increased. The bigger the size of the holes on the parachute, the more exact the parachute lands on the targeted topographic point.

Some effects must be taken into consideration, as the holes are created ; the clip taken for the parachute to make the land is reduced. Therefore, to do the ideal parachute, the right form, the right figure of holes and the right size of holes need to be investigated exhaustively. That is the research inquiries of my drawn-out essay.

4.0 METHODOLOGY

4.1 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND INITIAL PLANNING

Planing the methodological analysis or the method development for this probe requires plentifulness of patient and energy. First and first, for the parachute sheet, I substitute the sheet with a refuse bag. A few studies have to be done to happen the most suited refuse bag to be used for this probe as it involves the form of the sheet. The thickness of the refuse bag has to taken into consideration excessively, as it may differ from the existent parachute sheet. Last but non least, the cost of all stuffs involved is besides taken into history. Besides utilizing refuse bags as replacements for the parachute sheet, I use strings to keep the sheet to the burden. I use a normal twine and a basket that has holes as the burden. The ground I used such basket is to do my theoretical account easier. This is because I can do usage of the bing holes in order to bind up the twine that is connected to the parachute.

After a few treatments with the supervisor, it is agreed that the sheet be varied by altering the form, size and figure of holes on it. Based in the initial planning, I intend to look into the consequence of form and figure of holes on the parachute in order to obtain the most efficient parachute. In this probe, an efficient parachute is one that can make the land with the longest clip and every bit near as possible to the targeted topographic point of landing.

The first parachute launching was set outdoor between two edifices. The consequences of the experiment are non dependable because of air current factor which affect the consequences. This is a type of restriction. So, I decided after that to carry on the experiment indoor. I opt for the academic edifice at MARA College Seremban as it is readily available. The parachute was ab initio planned to be launched from the 2nd floor of the edifice. It is subsequently changed as the parachute may hit the stepss at the floor below. So, the first floor of the edifice is chosen alternatively ( Figure 1 ) .

Image017.jpgImage017.jpg

The targeted topographic point of landing ( archery functionary out-of-door multi-target face )

Figure 1

4.2 EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE

First of wholly, the refuse bag must be cut to the form needed. In this probe, the refuse bag is cut into square form ( 65cm x 65cm ) , circular form ( radius 65cm ) and triangle form ( base 65cm and 65cm tallness ) . This set of parachutes is to prove that they can set down on the land at the longest clip and that they besides can set down on the targeted topographic point. Once the parachute is done, the parachute with square sheet is released foremost from the top of 1 storey academic edifice ( tallness ) . The clip taken for the parachute to land is taken and recorded by utilizing a stop watch. For the informations on whether parachutes can set down on the targeted topographic point, a measurement tape is used to mensurate distance from the Centre point ( X mark on the mark face ) to where the parachute land. The experiment is so repeated five times for each form so that the mean clip taken and distance can be measured.

After the first theoretical account or form is done five times, the same process is repeated for the following form of parachute which is circular form and so the trigon form. While making the trigon parachute, some troubles are encountered. This is due to the form of the parachute itself which makes it hard to move like a normal parachute. Sometimes the parachute falls suddenly. The experiment is still done until five readings are taken.

After all forms of parachute have been tested, the other variables are tested following. The following variable is the figure of holes needed in order to do the parachute land on the targeted topographic point. Four holes are created on the parachute sheet. By utilizing the same sequence ( square, unit of ammunition and trigon ) , the experiment is started all over once more. For the first 4 holes, the size is 2cm in diameter. The distance between holes is situated every bit so that the air opposition can scatter every bit around the parachute, therefore enabling parachute to go in a consecutive way. For this probe, the readings are merely taken three times. This is because based on the first experiment ; the readings do non change much hence it is sufficient to take merely three readings.

The Numberss of holes are increased from four to eight after the old experiment is done. The premise is that with increasing figure of holes, the clip taken for the parachute to make the land is less. At the same clip, the topographic point where the parachute lands are much more exact to the topographic point targeted. The purpose of this experiment is to happen the most efficient parachute design that is one that has the longest clip for landing and yet falls on the exact or targeted topographic point. So the size of holes is increased. The same process is repeated but the size is increased from 2cm to 5cm.

When the size of the holes is increased, it is expected that the parachute will fall even faster and may fall straight on the targeted topographic point. The consequence will be more important when the figure of 5cm holes is changed from four holes to eight holes.

5.0 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

5.1 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF DATA

Quantitative Data

Comparison Between different forms of parachutes on landing

Shape

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

Square

1.88

1.19

Round

2.24

1.12

Triangle

1.02

1.23

Table 1

Comparison between different Numberss of holes on landing ( Average clip taken )

Shape

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

No holes

4 holes

8 holes

Square

1.88

1.09

1.02

Round

2.24

1.98

1.70

Triangle

1.02

0.70

0.46

Table 2

Comparison between different Numberss of holes on landing ( Average distance )

Shape

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

No holes

4 holes

8 holes

Square

1.19

1.16

1.04

Round

1.12

1.08

0.96

Triangle

1.23

0.46

1.15

Table 3

Comparison between different size of holes on landing ( Average distance )

Shape

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

No holes

Small holes

Large holes

Square

1.19

1.16

1.15

Round

1.12

1.08

1.03

Triangle

1.23

0.46

1.18

Table 4

5.2 GENERAL OBSERVATION ON BEHAVIOUR OF PARACHUTE EXPERIMENT

Qualitative Data

Right after the basket ( mass ) is released, the parachute sheet instantly will open to defy the gravitative force, and therefore the clip taken to fall is reduced.

When the parachute is falling, is observed that the parachute with unit of ammunition form is most stable as the basket did non swing. Compared to the other two forms, rectangular parachute can still be considered as stable but triangular parachute is really unstable.

When the parachute hits the land, there is sound produced. It is the sound of impact. As the figure of holes is increased the volume of the sound increases whereas clip taken to make the land decreases.

5.3 COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT SHAPES OF PARACHUTES ON Landing

Different forms of parachute sheet will impact the clip taken for the parachute to land. This is because of the country of each forms is different. The distance where the parachute lands to the targeted topographic point is really determined by the holes on the parachute.

For the square parachute, the expression for country of square is ;

Since the square parachute length is 65cm and the breadth is 65cm, therefore the country is 4225cm2.

For unit of ammunition parachute, the expression of the country is equal to the expression of a circle which is ;

The R is stand foring the radius of the circle. Since the radius of this unit of ammunition parachute is 65cm, the country is 13273cm2.

And for the last form which is the trigon parachute, the expression is ;

By utilizing the expression stated above, if the tallness and the base of trigon are both 65cm, the country of the trigon is 2112.5cm2.

Shape

Square

Round

Triangle

Area ( A±0.1 cm2 )

4225.0

13273.0

2113.0

Table 5

Figure 2

From above informations ( Table 5 ) , we can see that the country of the parachute is differing by ;

Air opposition depends on the form or the transverse sectional-area of the falling object which is the parachute in this experiment. The bigger the form or cross sectional country, the more or effectual the air opposition in countering the opposing gesture of the parachute.[ 3 ]Therefore, the air opposition to the unit of ammunition parachute is the most effectual than the air opposition that acts upon square and trigon parachute. The unit of ammunition parachute falls with a smaller acceleration and takes longer clip to make the land even though the mass are all the same. Table 6 below shows the item informations of the experiment based on the form of the parachute.

Shape

Test

Time taken to make land ( A±0.01s )

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

Distance from mark point ( A±0.05m )

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

Square

1st

2.15

1.88

1.09

1.19

2nd

1.77

1.12

3rd

1.86

1.14

4th

1.86

1.80

5th

1.76

0.80

Round

1st

2.48

2.24

1.23

1.12

2nd

2.25

1.14

3rd

2.34

0.97

4th

1.97

1.45

5th

2.08

0.79

Triangle

1st

0.86

1.02

1.26

1.23

2nd

1.07

1.31

3rd

1.12

1.16

4th

0.97

1.27

5th

1.08

1.15

Table 6

To look into the grade of preciseness of the informations, we can cipher the coefficient of fluctuation by utilizing the expression stated below. If the grade of preciseness calculated is less than 1, the information is taken to be precise.

This is an illustration of a computation to obtain the grade of preciseness of the information. The illustration is based on the information for clip taken for a square parachute.

First, cipher the grade of preciseness for the clip taken. The mean clip taken is 1.88 sec. The computation is shown below

Then the standard divergence of 0.158 is obtained from the computation shown below

Finally the coefficient of fluctuation can be calculated after the norm and the value of standard divergence are found. The coefficient of fluctuation is 8.4 as obtained from computation shown below

The value of the coefficient of fluctuation is higher than 1. This shows that the informations obtained for the clip taken for the square parachute to make the land is non precise. This might be due to some restrictions that occurred during the launching of the parachute. The restriction is discussed in the rating subdivision.

For the other set of informations the computation is non shown as the computation is similar. Here is the sum-up of the coefficient of fluctuation for the informations: –

Shape

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

Standard divergence

Coefficient of fluctuation

Square

1.88

0.158

8.4

Round

2.24

0.203

9.1

Triangle

1.02

0.105

10.3

Table 7

Shape

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

Standard divergence

Coefficient of fluctuation

Square

1.19

0.368

31

Round

1.12

0.251

22

Triangle

1.23

0.071

5.8

Table 8

5.4 COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF HOLES ON Landing

The intent of holes based on research, it is to forestall the parachute from hovering. In my experiment, the parachute does non hover and the holes are non forestalling the parachute from hovering since no oscillation occurs. The holes on my parachute really do the parachute to set down even closer to the targeted topographic point of landing.

Even though I try to make a parachute that can set down about vertically on the targeted topographic point, I besides want the parachute to set down quietly which means a longer clip is needed to make the land. As the figure of holes additions, the clip taken for the parachute to make the land is lessenings. This is because, as stated before the bigger the form or cross sectional country, the more effectual the air opposition in countering the opposing gesture of the parachute.[ 4 ]Therefore when holes increases, it really decreases the country of the parachute and finally makes the parachute reach the land faster. This can be proven by ciphering the country of the parachute after the holes are introduced. First calculate the country of the holes. Since the holes are round in form, the country is calculated by utilizing the expression,

The diameter of the holes is 2cm. Hence the radius is 1cm. By utilizing the expression, the country for each hole is 3.14cm2. There are 4 holes introduced to the parachute, therefore the entire country loss is which is 12.57 cm2. In table 9 on the following page shows the concluding country of parachute after the holes are introduced ;

Shape

Initial country ( cm2 )

Final country ( cm2 )

Square

4225

4212.43

Round

13273

13260.43

Triangle

2113

2100.43

Table 9

From above informations, one time once more we can see that the country of the parachute is differing by ;

This is contrary to my first intent which is to set down the parachute with the longest clip. Hence, in this peculiar experiment, I merely want to look into my premise that holes can do the parachute land on the targeted topographic point.

Besides, I besides change the figure of holes to look into whether the figure of holes does give an consequence to the topographic point of landing. The item information for this experiment is presented in the following page.

Based on the informations in table 11, it shows that when the figure of holes increased, the topographic point where the parachute lands is nearer to the targeted topographic point. This is because when more holes are created, the more it approaches the free autumn construct. Free autumn is when an object is acted upon by a gravitative force merely.[ 5 ]It can besides explicate on the other manner unit of ammunition, same like the old. The country of the parachute after 8 holes are created is as follows ;

Shape

Initial country ( cm2 )

Final country, 4 holes ( cm2 )

Final country, 8 holes ( cm2 )

Square

4225

4212.43

4199.86

Round

13273

13260.43

13247.86

Triangle

2113

2100.43

2087.86

Table 10

From the informations on the old page, we can see that the country of the parachute is differing after figure of holes increased by ;

As the country of the parachute decreases, the air opposition will against the parachute besides decreases. Hence the parachute will set down more perpendicular comparison to the less figure of holes. A free autumn is when an object falls vertically.

Shape

No. of holes

Test

Time taken to make land ( A±0.01s )

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

Distance from mark point ( A±0.05m )

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

Square

4

1st

1.12

1.09

1.21

1.16

2nd

1.10

1.16

3rd

1.06

1.10

8

1st

1.07

1.02

0.97

1.04

2nd

0.98

1.06

3rd

1.00

1.08

Round

4

1st

1.87

1.98

1.07

1.08

2nd

2.01

1.11

3rd

2.05

1.06

8

1st

1.45

1.70

0.98

0.96

2nd

2.04

1.02

3rd

1.58

0.88

Triangle

4

1st

0.87

0.70

1.21

1.20

2nd

0.67

1.19

3rd

0.56

1.20

8

1st

0.46

0.46

1.14

1.15

2nd

0.48

1.18

3rd

0.43

1.12

Table 11

The same stairss are taken to cipher the grade of preciseness as old done. This is to guarantee whether the informations obtained is precise or non. The computation is once more non shown since the computation is precisely similar with the computation before. Here is the sum-up of the grade of preciseness for the informations of comparing between different Numberss of holes on landing.

Shape

No of holes

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

Standard divergence

Coefficient of fluctuation

Square

4

1.09

0.03

2.75

8

1.02

0.05

4.63

Round

4

1.98

0.10

4.54

8

1.70

0.31

18.2

Triangle

4

0.70

0.16

21.4

8

0.46

0.03

5.47

Table 12

Shape

No of holes

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

Standard divergence

Coefficient of fluctuation

Square

4

1.16

0.06

5.17

8

1.04

0.06

5.77

Round

4

1.08

0.03

2.78

8

0.96

0.07

7.29

Triangle

4

1.20

0.01

0.83

8

1.15

0.03

2.61

Table 13

5.5 COMPARISON BETWEEN SIZES OF HOLES ON Landing

In this probe, it is merely to look into whether the size of the holes on the parachute will impact the topographic point of set downing. Based on old apprehension, the holes function to do the parachute land vertically. As the figure of holes additions, the topographic point where the parachute land is nearer to the targeted topographic point. Take note that when more holes, the less clip taken to make the land. Therefore, this trial has nil to make with the clip taken, merely for the distance where the parachute land.

It is said that when the holes are bigger, the parachute may cut down the air opposition and hence it about resemble the free autumn theory. Imagine if the large holes are doubled the figure? The topographic point where the parachute land will be much more close comparison to other state of affairs but the clip taken is the least. Table 14 on the following page is the information for the parachute with larger holes which is changed from diameter 2cm to 5cm. Datas for parachute with little holes ( 2cm ) is the informations in table 11.

Shape

No. of holes

Test

Time taken to make land ( A±0.01s )

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

Distance from mark point ( A±0.05m )

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

Square

4

1st

1.02

1.04

1.19

1.15

2nd

1.06

1.13

3rd

1.03

1.12

8

1st

1.01

0.98

0.94

0.99

2nd

0.91

1.02

3rd

1.03

1.02

Round

4

1st

1.57

1.80

1.02

1.03

2nd

1.89

1.05

3rd

1.93

1.03

8

1st

1.33

1.59

0.93

0.91

2nd

2.00

0.98

3rd

1.45

0.82

Triangle

4

1st

0.74

0.59

1.19

1.18

2nd

0.54

1.20

3rd

0.48

1.16

8

1st

0.43

0.44

1.13

1.13

2nd

0.48

1.15

3rd

0.40

1.12

Table 14

For this set of informations, one time once more the coefficient of fluctuation is calculated so that we can see how precise the information is. The computation is similar to both old informations. The computation is non shown and the consequence is tabulated below.

Shape

No of holes

Average clip taken ( A±0.01s )

Standard divergence

Coefficient of fluctuation

Square

4

1.04

0.02

1.91

8

0.98

0.06

6.11

Round

4

1.80

0.20

11.1

8

1.59

0.36

22.6

Triangle

4

0.59

0.14

23.7

8

0.44

0.04

9.10

Table 15

Shape

No of holes

Average distance ( A±0.05m )

Standard divergence

Coefficient of fluctuation

Square

4

1.15

0.04

3.48

8

0.99

0.05

5.10

Round

4

1.03

0.02

1.94

8

0.91

0.08

8.79

Triangle

4

1.18

0.02

1.69

8

1.13

0.02

1.77

Table 16

5.6 SELECTION FOR IDEAL PARACHUTE

Since this Extended Essay is to happen the best parachute that can make the land in longest clip and that can set down nearest to the mark point, the longest mean clip taken for set downing in return into consideration. Besides, for the parachute that can set down nearest to the mark point, the smallest mean distance is considered.

Base on informations collected, the form of parachute that land the longest mean clip is the unit of ammunition parachute. Therefore other form of parachute will non be selected. The following standard is chosen by ciphering r2-value in the arrested development statistics. The r2-value is calculated automatically by utilizing Microsoft Excel 2007.

The r2-value will demo which combination of unit of ammunition form and holes is the ideal parachute. The more the value of r2 is nearing to 0, the more likely the parachute to be chose. On the following page is the consequence of the r2-value.

The r2-value for unit of ammunition parachute with 4 little holes

Figure 3

The r2-value for unit of ammunition parachute with 8 little holes

Figure 4

The r2-value for unit of ammunition parachute with 4 large holes

Figure 5

The r2-value for unit of ammunition parachute with 8 large holes

Figure 6

Value of r2-value for each combination

Combination

r2-value

Round

4 little holes

0.669984

8 little holes

0.82072

4 large holes

0.769919

8 large holes

0.786996

Table 17

Based on table 17, the most likely combination of parachute that will be selected is round parachute with 8 little holes ( 0.82072 ) followed by unit of ammunition + 8 large holes ( 0.786996 ) , round + 4 large holes ( 0.766919 ) and in conclusion round + 4 little holes ( 0.669984 ) .

6.0 Evaluation

Throughout the experiment, there are some factors that cause restriction to my informations. First and first, a major restriction of air current. At first I do the experiment outdoor between two edifices. The topographic point is blowy and causes my parachute to set down far from the targeted topographic point. This is overcome by making the experiment indoor. Then, there is a restriction of a launching topographic point, which is non high plenty. The initial planning is to establish from the 2nd floor which is about 12 pess from the land floor. Then it is changed to the first floor. The clip taken is really short for every reading for illustration non transcending 3 seconds.

The experiment besides requires one to mount up the stepss and enter the clip taken for the parachute to land. I record the clip from where I have launched the parachute by merely utilizing the sound of impact as the index that the parachute had reached the land.

7.0 Decision

From this Extended Essay, I conclude out that in order to do a parachute, there are several factors are important that consequence to the safety of the burden or human being utilizing it.

For minor grounds, I now know how to undertake or to suppress the soft landing competition which involves the use of parachutes.

For major grounds, to make a echt parachute that are used to transport human existences, the factors like form and holes are really critical and now I know the factors and how it functions.

Based on this Extended Essay, the best parachute is the 1 that can make the land the longest clip and that can set down nearest to the mark point. The unit of ammunition parachute is found to be the parachute that land at longest clip with mean clip taken for landing is 2.24 seconds compared to square parachute ( 1.88 seconds ) and triangle parachute ( 1.02 seconds ) .

When there is no hole, the parachute will scatter furthest from the targeted topographic point. The bigger the holes and the more the holes, the more accurate the landing. On the other manus, the clip taken is short hence the landing is instead disconnected or non soft. The unit of ammunition parachute with little holes is found to be the parachute that land at shorter distance from the targeted topographic point which is 1.08m for 4 little holes and 0.96m for 8 little holes compared to round parachute with no holes ( 1.198m ) . The unit of ammunition parachute with large holes is non chosen for the best parachute because the clip taken to make the land is shortest. This is because as the holes become larger, the clip taken is really fast therefore making a greater unprompted force.

In decision, base on the r2-value, the best and ideal parachute is one that is round in form and holding eight Numberss of little holes. The mean clip taken is 1.70 seconds and the mean distance ( scattering ) is 0.96 meter while the r2-value is 0.82072.

8.0 FURTHER RESEARCH

In my drawn-out essay, I merely take into consideration the form of the parachute and the holes on the parachute. These factors affect clip taken for parachute to land and besides the topographic point where it lands. Further research can besides be done under the same subject.

The other factor that may be used in future research is length of twine. Probe can be done to find whether different lengths of strings connected to the parachute can impact the manner it lands.

Other factors, for illustration, stuffs the parachute is made of and figure of strings attached can besides be investigated.

It would be interesting to happen out the result of this probe in the hereafter.

9.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Chang, S. L. ( 2007 ) . FocuSSuper Physics SPM. Malaya: Pelangi.

Teek, F. S. ( 2007 ) . Success Physics SPM. Malaya: Oxford Fajar Shah Alam.

Web sites

( n.d. ) . Retrieved January 17, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //sg.answers.yahoo.com/question/index? qid=20080131162150AA2iOT5

History of the Parachute. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved January 17, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: //inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/ss/Parachute.htm

Parachute. ( n.d. ) . Retrieved August 11, 2009, from Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parachute

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