Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt
Icon of the American Century
& # 8220 ; The joy of life is his who has the bosom to demand it. & # 8221 ;
executed: Magomedova Z.A.
examined: Akhmedova Z.G.
Introduction page 3 Introduction page 3
Maverick in the Making, 1882 & # 8211 ; 1901 page 3 Maverick in the Making, 1882 – 1901 page 3
Rough Rider in the White House, 1901 & # 8211 ; 1909 page 7 Rough Rider in the White House, 1901 – 1909 page 7
The Restless Hunter, 1909 & # 8211 ; 1919 page 10 The Restless Hunter, 1909 – 1919 page 10
Chronology of the Public Career of Theodore Roosevelt page 14 Chronology of the Public Career of Theodore Roosevelt page 14
Beginning page 15 Source page 15
The life of Theodore Roosevelt ( 1858 & # 8211 ; 1919 ) was one of changeless activity, huge energy, and digesting achievements. As the 26th President of the United States, Roosevelt was the wielder of the Big Stick, the builder of the Panama Canal, an devouring environmentalist, and the Nemesis of the corporate trusts that threatened to monopolise American concern at the start of the century. His feats as a Rough Rider in the Spanish-American War and as a cowpuncher in the Dakota Territory were declarative of his spirit of escapade and love of the out-of-doorss. Reading and hunting were womb-to-tomb passions of his ; authorship was a womb-to-tomb irresistible impulse. Roosevelt wrote more than three twelve books on subjects every bit different as naval history and African large game. Whatever his involvement, he pursued it with extraordinary ardor. “ I ever believe in traveling difficult at everything, ” he preached clip and once more. This was the footing for populating what he called the “ strenuous life, ” and he exhorted it for both the person and the state.
Roosevelt ‘s prosecuting personality enhanced his popularity. Aided by tonss of lensmans, cartoonists, and portrayal creative persons, his characteristics became symbols of national acknowledgment ; mail addressed merely with drawings of dentitions and eyeglassess arrived at the White House without hold. TR continued to be newsworthy in retirement, particularly during the historic Bull Moose run of 1912, while prosecuting an elusive 3rd presidential term. He remains relevant today. This exhibition is a retrospective expression at the adult male and his portrayal, whose progressive thoughts about societal justness, representative democracy, and America ‘s function as a universe leader have significantly shaped our national character.
Maverick in the Making, 1882 – 1901
Theodore Roosevelt was born on October 27, 1858, in a brownstone house on Twentieth Street in New York City. A re-creation of the original home, now operated by the National Park Service, replicates the repose of Roosevelt ‘s earliest old ages. His male parent, Theodore Roosevelt Sr. , was a comfortable glasswork merchandiser, and was one of the affluent old Knickerbocker category, whose Dutch ascendants had been populating on Manhattan Island since the 1640s. His female parent, Martha Bulloch, was reputedly one of the loveliest misss to hold been born in antebellum Georgia. Together the parents instilled in their eldest boy a strong sense of household trueness and civic responsibility, values that Roosevelt would himself pattern, and would prophesy from the bully pulpit all of his grownup life.
Unfortunately the richness to which the immature Theodore grew accustomed could make little to better the province of his delicate wellness. He was a sallow, scraggy kid, hindered by hapless seeing. Far worse, nevertheless, were the life endangering onslaughts of asthma he had to digest until early maturity. To beef up his fundamental law, he lifted dumbbells and exercised in a room of the house converted into a secondary school. He took packaging lessons to support himself and to prove his competitory spirit. From an early age he ne’er lacked energy or the will to better himself physically and mentally. He was a rapacious reader and author ; his childhood journals reveal much about his involvements and the quality of his spread outing head. Natural scientific discipline, ornithology, and runing were early avocations of his, which became lifelong.
In the autumn of 1876, Roosevelt entered Harvard University. By the clip he graduated magna semen laude, he was engaged to be married to a beautiful immature lady named Alice Lee. The nuptials took topographic point on Roosevelt ‘s 22nd birthday. Amid the intense felicity he experienced during his first twelvemonth of matrimony, he laid the foundations of his historic public calling. “ I rose like a projectile, ” he said old ages subsequently. Ironically, when he chartered his ain way for public office — the White House in 1912 — he failed bitterly. When others had selected him — as they did for the New York Assembly in 1881, for the governorship in 1898, and for the frailty presidential term in 1900 — his election was about a bygone decision. Politicss aside, Roosevelt shaped and molded his life every bit much as any individual could perchance make. He could non command destiny, nevertheless. On Valentine ‘s Day, 1884, his female parent died of enteric fever febrility and his married woman died of Bright ‘s disease, two yearss after giving birth to a girl, Alice Lee. Amidst this personal injury, Theodore Roosevelt was on the brink of going a national presence.
Between 1882 and 1884, Theodore Roosevelt represented the Twenty-first District of New York in the province legislative assembly in Albany. An 1881 run circular noted that the immature Republican campaigner was “ conspicuous for his honestness and unity, ” qualities non taken for granted in a metropolis run by self-seeking machine politicians. This was the start of Roosevelt ‘s long calling as a political reformist.
Roosevelt ‘s political confederation withHenry Cabot Lodge
of Massachusetts began in 1884, when the two were delegates to the Republican National Convention in Chicago. In clip, both work forces would go leaders of the Republican Party. Their extended common correspondence is an insightful record of shared involvements and American idealism at the bend of the 20th century. After functioning in the United States House of Representatives for six old ages, Lodge became a senator in 1893 and retained his place for the remainder of his life. Like Roosevelt, Lodge was an advocator of civil service reform ( he recommended Roosevelt to be a commissioner in 1889 ) , a strong naval forces, the Panama Canal, and pure nutrient and drug statute law. A specializer in foreign personal businesss, Lodge acted as one of Roosevelt ‘s chief advisors during his presidential term. Yet Lodge did non back up many of Roosevelt ‘s imperfect reforms & # 8212 ; adult females ‘s right to vote, for case & # 8212 ; and he refused to back his friend in the Bull Moose run of 1912.
Love of escapade and the great out-of-doorss, particularly in the West, were the bonds that sealed the friendly relationship between Theodore Roosevelt and Frederic Remington. “ I wish I were with you out among the sage coppice, the great brickle cottonwoods, and the sharply-channeled waste buttes, ” Roosevelt wrote to the western creative person in 1897 from Washington. After the decease of his married woman Alice Lee in 1884, Roosevelt moved temporarily to the Bad Lands in the Dakota Territory, where he owned two cattle spreads. In 1888, Century Magazine published a series of articles about the West written by Roosevelt and illustrated by Remington. In a May article, Roosevelt told the narrative of his make bolding gaining control of three stealers who had stolen a boat from his Elkhorn Ranch. Remington depicted their gaining control in this picture.
was a valuable friend and beginning of information for Roosevelt when he became a New York City constabularies commissioner in the spring of 1895. As a constabulary newsman for the New York Evening Sun, Riis understood the reforms needed within the constabulary section, every bit good as the immoralities in the slums, which he frequented to garner narratives. Riis was successful in rousing public consciousness to the predicament of New York ‘s tenement population, particularly the kids, in several books, including his authoritative How the Other Half Lives. In 1904 Riis published a life of his good friend, with whom he used to walk the streets of New York, titled Theodore Roosevelt: The Citizen.
I have “ developed a playfellow in the form of Dr. Wood of the Army, an Apache candidate and alumnus of Harvard, two old ages subsequently than my category, ” Roosevelt wrote from Washington in 1897. “ Last Sunday he reasonably walked me down in the class of a scramble place from Cabin John Bridge down the other side of the Potomac over the drops. ” Theodore Roosevelt andLeonard Wood
liked each other from their first meeting that spring. Both were robust and athletic, and both, from the vantage points of their respective occupations & # 8212 ; Roosevelt as helper secretary of the naval forces, and Wood as an army officer ( and the doctor of President and Mrs. William McKinley ) & # 8212 ; took a aggressive attitude toward Spain with regard to Cuba. When Roosevelt was offered the opportunity to raise a regiment of voluntary horse, he in bend recruited the more experient Wood to be the regiment ‘s colonel and commanding officer. After the war in Cuba, Wood remained as military governor of Santiago, and shortly thenceforth was appointed to administrate to the personal businesss of the full island.
John Singer Sargent painted this portrayal of Wood in 1903, when he went to Washington to make the official portrayal of President Roosevelt. Sargent recalled so that the two veteran Rough Riders enjoyed viing against each other with fencing foils.
After his return from the war in Cuba, Colonel Roosevelt posed for this exposure at Montauk, Long Island, shortly before his First Volunteer Cavalry Regiment was mustered out of service in September 1898. Later, in a missive to sculptor James E. Kelly & # 8212 ; who like Frederick MacMonnies sculpted a figurine of the Rough Rider upon a Equus caballus & # 8212 ; Roosevelt described in item how he looked and dressed in the war. Unlike his image here, he said, “ In Cuba I did non hold the side of my chapeau turned up. ”
Theodore Roosevelt emerged from the Spanish-American War a national hero. His military celebrity now enhanced his repute as a reform politician in his place province of New York, where he was nominated to run for the governorship that autumn of 1898.
This sketch appeared in Judge, October 29, 1898, merely prior to Roosevelt ‘s successful election, and predicted his ultimate political fate, the White House.
represented the position quo for most Americans at the bend of the century. By and big, they were comfy with him in the White House. As the standard carrier of the Republican Party, he was an retiring rampart of conservativism. He stood for the gilded criterion, for protective duties, and of class for a strong national defence during the Spanish-American War. McKinley ‘s personal properties were affableness and stability, non dynamism and originality. Politically he was a follower and non a reformist, like Roosevelt. If the thought of holding TR on the ticket as Vice President seemed at odds with the President ‘s relaxed manner, it was absolutely similar Mckinley to travel along with what the party and the people wanted. He ne’er admitted to sharing the frights of his good friend and political adviser, Ohio Senator Marcus Hanna, who was besides president of the national Republican commission. For Hanna, Roosevelt was excessively immature, excessively inexperient and excessively much of a rebel. He could non assist but believe: What if McKinley should decease in office?
Rough Rider in the White House, 1901 – 1909
No event had a more profound consequence on Theodore Roosevelt ‘s political calling than the blackwash of President William McKinley in September 1901. At the age of 42, Vice President Theodore Roosevelt took the curse of office, going the youngest President of the United States before or since. From the start, Roosevelt was committed to doing the authorities work for the people, and in many respects, the people ne’er needed authorities more. The post-Civil War industrial revolution had generated tremendous wealth and power for the work forces who controlled the levers of concern and capital. Regulating the great concern trusts to further just competition without socialising the free endeavor system would be one of Roosevelt ‘s primary concerns. The railwaies, labour, and the processed nutrient industry all came under his examination. Although the ordinances he implemented were modest by today ‘s criterions, jointly they were a important first measure in an age before warning labels and consumer cases.
Internationally, America was on the threshold of universe leading. Acquisition of the Philippines and Guam after the recent war with Spain expanded the state ‘s territorial boundary lines about to Asia. The Panama Canal would merely increase American trade and defence involvements in the Far East, every bit good as in Central and South America. In an age that saw the rise of pelagic steamer travel, the state ‘s sense of isolation was on the brink of all of a sudden going every bit antiquated as yardarms and canvass.
A conservative by nature, Roosevelt was progressive in the manner H
vitamin E addressed the state ‘s jobs and modern in his position of the presidential term. If the people were to be served, harmonizing to him, so it was incumbent upon the President to orchestrate the enterprises that would be to their benefit and the state ‘s public assistance. Not since Abraham Lincoln, and Andrew Jackson before him, had a President exercised his executive powers as an equal subdivision of authorities. If the Constitution did non specifically deny the President the exercising of power, Roosevelt felt at autonomy to make so. “ Is there any jurisprudence that will forestall me from declaring Pelican Island a Federal Bird Reservation? . . .Very good, so I so declare it! ” By executive order in March 1903, he established the first of 51 national bird sanctuaries. These and the national Parkss and memorials he created are a portion of his great bequest.
Theodore Roosevelt ‘s dynamic position of the presidential term infused energy into a subdivision of authorities that traditionally had been ceremonial and sedate. His celebrated “ Tennis Cabinet ” was declarative of how he liked to work. Riding and boosting were day-to-day interests ; one senator jested that anyone wishing to hold influence with the President would hold to purchase a Equus caballus. When the imperativeness could maintain gait with him, it reveled in his activities, doing him the first famous person of the 20th century. His monocled image adorned infinite magazine covers before beauty, sex, and dirt became smart. This image of Roosevelt by Peter Juley appeared on the screen of Harper ‘s Weekly, July 2, 1904.
( Left to compensate )
: Quentin ( 1897-1918 ) , Theodore ( 1858-1919 ) , Theodore Jr. ( 1887-1944 ) , Archibald ( 1894-1979 ) , Alice Lee ( 1884-1980 ) , Kermit ( 1889-1943 ) , Edith Kermit ( 1861-1948 ) , and Ethel Carow ( 1891-1977 )
Like Roosevelt himself, the first household was immature, energetic, and a freshness in the White House. Public involvement in them was self-generated, as images of Theodore, Edith, and their six kids began looking in newspapers and magazines. For one time in history, the executive sign of the zodiac acquired facets of a normal American place, complete, with roller skates, bikes, and tennis rackets.
Theodore Roosevelt ‘s eldest kid,Alice Lee
, was an waxy adolescent when the household moved into the White House in 1901. Ebullient and noncompliant by nature, she enjoyed forcing the bounds of decorousness, while viing for her male parent ‘s attending. Naturally she was a favourite of the imperativeness, which called her Princess Alice. Narratives about her jokes, her favourite colour, a blue-grey dubbed “ Alice blue, ” and her dramatis personae of familiarities filled the newspapers. She smoked in public, bet at the racecourse, and was caught rushing in her ruddy roadster by the Washington constabulary. Photograph of her connote the authoritative Gibson Girl and suggest an air of vernal arrogance. In 1906, she marriedNicholas Longworth
, a Republican congresswoman from Ohio. He was 15 old ages her senior, short and barefaced, and something of a bon vivant. Their White House nuptials was the most talked-about societal event of the Roosevelt old ages.
At the invitation of the first household, John Singer Sargent was a White House invitee for a hebdomad in the center of February 1903, while he painted a portrayal of the President. For Sargent, the first Anglo-American portrait painter of his epoch, the experience was annoying in many respects. Particularly, Sargent found the President ‘s strong will dashing from the start. The pick of a suited topographic point to pigment, where the lighting was good, tried Roosevelt ‘s forbearance. No room on the first floor agreed with the creative person. When they began mounting the stairway, Roosevelt told Sargent he did non believe the creative person knew what he wanted. Sargent replied that he did non believe Roosevelt knew what was involved in presenting for a portrayal. Roosevelt, who had merely reached the landing, swung about, puting his manus on the newel and said, “ Do n’t I! ” Sargent saw his chance and told the President non to travel ; this would be the airs and the location for the posings. Still, over the following few yearss Sargent was frustrated by the President ‘s busy agenda, which limited their Sessionss to a 30 minutes after tiffin. Sargent would hold liked to hold had more clip. However, Roosevelt considered the portrayal a complete success. He liked it vastly, and continued to prefer it for the remainder of his life. Commissioned by the federal authorities, Sargent ‘s Roosevelt is the official White House portrayal of the 26th President.
On an drawn-out visit to the West in the spring of 1903, President Roosevelt sought the company of naturalists John Burroughs andJohn Muir
. With Burroughs, Roosevelt camped in Yellowstone Park for two hebdomads, and with Muir he explored the admirations of the Yosemite Valley and had his image taken in forepart of a elephantine redwood tree in the Mariposa Grove. Roosevelt ‘s visit was an chance for Muir to be able to affect upon the President the demand for immediate saving steps, particularly for the elephantine woods. In 1908, Roosevelt paid testimonial to Muir by denominating Muir Woods, a redwood forest North of San Francisco, a national memorial.
A hunting trip President Roosevelt made into the swamps of Mississippi in 1902 became legendary when he refused to hit an dog-tired black bear, which had been run down by a battalion of hounds and roped to a tree. Although the incident was reported in the local imperativeness, Clifford K. Berryman, a staff creative person for the Washington Post, made it memorable on November 16 with a little front-page sketch titled “ Pulling the Line in Mississippi. ” Roosevelt is shown keeping a rifle, but declining to hit the bedraggled bear. The bear, nevertheless, received no executive mildness ; Roosevelt ordered person else to set the animal out of its wretchedness. Clifford Berryman elected to maintain the bear alive in his sketchs, and it evolved, of all time more cuddly, as a comrade to Roosevelt, finally engendering the Teddy Bear fad.
The Restless Hunter, 1909 – 1919
Merely one time in American history had a President vacated the White House and so returned to it once more as President. This had been Grover Cleveland ‘s alone fate in 1893. That this had occurred within recent memory, and to a politician in whose footfalls Roosevelt had followed as governor of New York and eventually as President, must hold given Roosevelt ground to hesitate as he himself became a private citizen once more in March 1909. He was merely 50 old ages old, the youngest adult male to go forth the executive office. Cleveland had been merely 18 months older when he temporarily yielded power to Benjamin Harrison in 1889. For the record, Roosevelt claimed that he was through with political relations. This was the lone thing he could hold said as William Howard Taft, his replacement, waited in the wings. Theodore Roosevelt had enjoyed being President every bit much as any individual perchance could. Filling the post-White House vacuity would necessitate something large and expansive, and with that in head, Roosevelt planned his immediate hereafter. The chance of a yearlong campaign in Africa brightened for him what otherwise would hold been the drab chance of retirement. It “ will allow me down to private life without that dull thump of which we hear so much, ” he wrote.
Aided by several British experts, Roosevelt oversaw every readying: path, cogwheel and vesture, nutrient and commissariats, arms, forces, and disbursals. He had been an devouring naturalist and huntsman since the yearss of his young person. Because he was truly interested in the African zoology, he arranged for his campaign to be every bit scientific as possible, and enticed the Smithsonian Institution to fall in the expedition by offering to lend extensively to its fledgling aggregation of wildlife specimens. Roosevelt invited his boy, Kermit, along for company, if the chap would be willing to disrupt his first twelvemonth of surveies at Harvard. Kermit needed no persuading.
By President Roosevelt ‘s last twelvemonth in the White House, he had long grown tired of petitions to sit to lensmans and portrayal painters. Merely as a favour to an old friend from England, Arthur Lee, did he hold to sit for a portrayal by the complete Hungarian Born creative person, Philip A. de Laszlo. The posings took topographic point in the spring of 1908, about which Roosevelt reported enthusiastically to Lee. “ I took a great illusion to Laszlo himself, ” he wrote, “ and it is the lone image which I truly enjoyed holding painted. ” Laszlo encouraged the President to ask for invitees to the posings to maintain Roosevelt entertained. “ And if there were n’t any visitants, ” said Roosevelt, “ I would acquire Mrs. Laszlo, who is a trump, to play the fiddle on the other side of the screen. ” When the picture was finished, Roosevelt said that he liked it “ better than any other. ”
Ten old ages subsequently, nevertheless, Roosevelt expressed a penchant for Sargent ‘s portrayal, done in 1903, which he thought had “ a remarkable quality, a blend of both the religious and the heroic. ” Still he thought that Mrs. Roosevelt favored Laszlo ‘s more relaxed image, a hallmark of the creative person ‘s ingratiating manner.
Three hebdomads after Theodore Roosevelt left the White House in March 1909, he embarked with his boy, Kermit, upon an African campaign, enduring about a twelvemonth. He had ever wanted to run the large game of Africa, but he besides wanted his expedition to be every bit scientific as possible. With this in head, he invited the Smithsonian Institution to take portion, and promised to give the Institution important carnal trophies, stand foring tonss of new species for its aggregations. Roosevelt himself made extended scientific notes about his African expedition. For case, he was keenly interested in the vegetation of Africa, and recorded the dietetic wonts of the animate beings he killed after analyzing the contents of their tummies.
While on campaign, Roosevelt wrote extensively about his African escapade. Scribner ‘s magazine was paying him $ 50,000 for a series of articles, that appeared in 1910 as a book, African Game Trails. This exposure of Roosevelt with a bull elephant was used as an illustration.
In March 1910, Roosevelt ended his 11 month African campaign and, reunited with his married woman, embarked on an drawn-out circuit of Europe. He accepted many invitations from national crowned heads and gave much awaited talks at the Sorbonne in Paris and at Oxford University in England. In Norway, he delivered eventually his formal credence address for holding won the Nobel Peace Prize four old ages before. “ I am received everyplace, ” he wrote, “ with every bit much wild enthusiasm as if I were on a Presidential circuit at place. ”
This screen of Harper ‘s Weekly, June 18, 1910, was one of legion in writing commentaries observing Roosevelt ‘s return to the United States.
Supreme Court Justice David J. Brewer used to joke thatWilliam Howard Taft
was the politest adult male in Washington, because he was absolutely capable of giving up his place on a tram to three ladies. Taft ‘s amicable temperament it was said that his laugh was one of the “ great American establishments ” was the foremost quality that won Roosevelt ‘s esteem. “ I think he has the most loveable personality I have of all time come in contact with, ” said Roosevelt. As governor general of the Philippines and so as secretary of war, Taft proved to be a trouble shooter in Roosevelt ‘s cabinet. His longtime aspiration had been to someday sit with Justice Brewer on the bench of the Supreme Court. Taft would finally win to the Court, but non before Roosevelt pegged him to be his replacement. “ Taft will transport on the work well as I have carried it on, ” predicted Roosevelt. “ His policies, rules, intents and ideals are the same as mine. ” Yet when Taft subsequently proved to be his ain individual, Roosevelt was distraught. Taft failed to convey the spirit of progressivism to which Roosevelt was of all time tilting. “ There is no usage seeking to be William Howard Taft with Roosevelt ‘s ways, ” he bemoaned, “ our ways are different. ”
Coaxed by his political supporters, and personally dissatisfied with what he considered to be President Taft ‘s deficiency of leading, Roosevelt announced early in 1912 that he would run for a historic 3rd presidential term, if the GOP nomination were tendered to him. This was a monumental determination on his portion, one he made contrary to his ain established beliefs in the tradition of party trueness, and without the full backup of party leaders. Roosevelt was numbering on winning the support of the people, and was successful in those provinces that had direct primaries. But in June, at the Republican convention in Chicago, the party machine wrested control of the proceedings and nominated President Taft easy after the Roosevelt delegates had walked out. This was the start of the Progressive Party, in which Roosevelt proudly accepted the nomination. The imperativeness was particularly happy to hold him back in the running. From the minute he declared, “ My chapeau is in the ring, ” he became the most seeable, if non feasible, campaigner. Ultimately, Roosevelt would crush Taft in the election, but he would lose to the Democratic campaigner, Woodrow Wilson. This screen of Judge, August 6, 1910, raised “ the inquiry ” from early on — ” Can a title-holder come back? ”
Theodore Roosevelt one time declared himself to be “ every bit strong as a bull elk. ” The denomination stuck and the elk became the popular symbol for the Progressive Party under Roosevelt. This sketch picturing the mascots of the major parties appeared in Harper ‘s Weekly, July 20, 1912, merely before the “ Bull Moose ” convention opened in Chicago.
Chronology of the Public Career of Theodore Roosevelt
1882-1884 – New York State Assemblyman
1889-1895 – United States Civil Service Commissioner
1895-1897 – New York City Police Commissioner
1897-1898 – Assistant Secretary of the Navy
1898 – Rough Rider
1899-1900 – Governor of New York
1901- Vice President of the United States
1901-1909 – President of the United States
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