Teddy Roosevelt Essay, Research Paper
Ascension To The White House As Governor of New York, Roosevelt would one time once more stand on his ain and distance himself from the political foremans and machines that got him elected. The caput of the Republican machine, Thomas Platt, had scruples about doing Roosevelt governor of New York because of Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s entire independency and his reform nature. But in the gubernatorial race of 1898, with the bad imperativeness the Republican Party was having, there seemed to be no 1 else who had a opportunity. Roosevelt was siting the crest of the moving ridge of being a true war hero, and with Platt & # 8217 ; s assist together they might maintain the Democrats from winning the office. Platt in return for his aid expected Roosevelt to allow him do the assignments and carry the party line. Roosevelt had no purposes of being Platt & # 8217 ; s marionette, and every bit shortly as he got in office the two would get down to conflict. Roosevelt had to be careful, because to wholly alienate Platt would stultify his opportunities to travel any farther politically or even endanger his opportunities to be reelected governor. Roosevelt made his point by worsening to name Platt & # 8217 ; s foremost suggested appointee. After doing his point, nevertheless, Roosevelt tried to work with the Republican foreman to the extent of non abandoning his ain principals. Platt for his portion could non flip the war hero out on his ear in 1900, but at the same clip, he wanted to happen a manner to gracefully acquire Roosevelt out of his hair. Platt & # 8217 ; s chance to acquire rid of Roosevelt came with the attack of the presidential election of 1900. McKinley was discretely looking for a new running mate to replace Hobart in the approaching election. It was reasonably obvious that the Democrats would take William Jennings Bryan as their campaigner of pick once more, and McKinley would necessitate a ardent speech production running mate to countervail Bryan & # 8217 ; s oratory abilities. McKinley would merely sit back and look Presidential while his running mate would assail Bryan. Hobart was non a talented speechmaker, and this determination to replace him became all that much easier when he died merely prior to the national Republican convention. Mark Hanna had run McKinley & # 8217 ; s run in 1896 and wanted nil to make with Roosevelt in 1900. Platt on the other manus saw his chance to acquire rid of Roosevelt at the same clip salvaging face in his ain place province of New York. The work forces of the west profoundly distrusted Mark Hanna, and loved Roosevelt, so a ballot for Roosevelt would both function to advance their hero, while at the same clip taking a shooting at Hanna. Roosevelt for his portion did non desire the Vice Presidency, but alternatively he wished to be reelected as governor of New York. As clip went by, it became more and more evident that Platt did non desire Roosevelt to stay in office and that, even if nominated, he would hold a tough clip being reelected. From Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s perspective, the governor & # 8217 ; s occupation paid much better than that of Vice President, plus the work of governor was more exciting. Roosevelt knew that the place of Vice President was one of obscureness, and judging from history wasn & # 8217 ; t the best attack to the White House. However, the Vice Presidency was still better than no occupation at all so when the nomination came he was happy to except it. Platt had arranged things so good, that by the clip the convention rolled about, Hanna could make nil to halt Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s nomination. Hanna was ferocious at the convention believing that the remainder of the party had gone mad. When person asked Hanna what was the affair, he retorted, & # 8220 ; Matter! Matter! Why, everybody & # 8217 ; s traveling headlong for Roosevelt for Vice President. Don & # 8217 ; t any of you realize that there & # 8217 ; s merely one life between that lunatic and the Presidency? & # 8221 ; Hanna so threw in the towel and made the nomination of Roosevelt for Vice President consentaneous. As the run began to weave up, Roosevelt consulted Hanna on what his portion should be in the election. Roosevelt was sent west to poll the work forces with whom he connected so good. Roosevelt played a successful function in the election, and McKinley won by a bigger bulk so he had in 1896. A job arose when Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s imperativeness and popularity began to equal that of the President himself. Jealousy raised its ugly caput on the portion of McKinley, and Roosevelt would necessitate to happen a manner to play 2nd violin and non to upstage the foreman. Immediately after the election Roosevelt headed west for a hunting trip to seek to put low. While runing puma and lynx the Canis familiariss had managed to corner a mountain king of beasts. As Roosevelt and his usher approached on horseback the cat, more afraid of them so the Canis familiariss, leaped from the tree and took off once more. Finally the Canis familiariss managed to corner the large cat once more. This clip when the huntsmans approached and the cat leaped from the tree the Canis familiariss caught it and began to contend with the mountain king of beasts. The Canis familiariss were taking a whipping from the large cat, but were unrelentingly traveling in once more and once more. Roosevelt non desiring to hit one of the Canis familiariss, but besides desiring to maintain the cat from bring downing any more harm on them jumped in with a knife and stabbed the large cat behind the shoulder thrusting the blade into the bosom and killing it. Roosevelt wrote place to his boy Ted, & # 8220 ; I have ever wished to kill a puma as I did this 1, with Canis familiariss and the knife. & # 8221 ; The narrative received so much imperativeness that once more he was upstaging his foreman. For his portion, if he wished to be president in 1904, he would hold to predate the hunting trips for fright of outshining the foreman and losing favour with the party. President By Assassination As the events played out it would non take Roosevelt until 1904 to go up to the Presidency. The bravo & # 8217 ; s slug would convey down McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo. The nihilist, Leon Czolgosz, approached McKinley and shot him. The sawboness who worked on him decided non to utilize the freshly invented X-ray machine, which was on show at the expounding. Alternatively they repaired the holes in his tummy and hoped for his recovery. Roosevelt, upon having the intelligence, came to the President & # 8217 ; s side in Buffalo, but left to travel on a household holiday in the Adirondack mountainss when it appeared that the President was out of the forests. On September 12th Roosevelt, while eating tiffin on his nice down a mountain, caught site of a adult male coming out of the forests on the trail down below. By his visual aspect it was at one time obvious that this adult male was no ordinary tramp. Roosevelt knew that he was the carrier of bad intelligence. They returned to the cabin, and subsequently in the eventide when the intelligence reached that the state of affairs was sedate, Roosevelt headed out in the dark with a driver in a waggon edge for Buffalo. Before he could make Buffalo McKinley was dead. Roosevelt was given a briefing and rushed by train to Buffalo. He would hold to pay the respects of the state to the fallen President. At 1:30 in the afternoon of September 13th he arrived at where McKinley & # 8217 ; s organic structure ballad. He met with the cabinet and took the curse of office. Theodore Roosevelt became the 26th president of the United States. In replacing McKinley in visible radiation of the current calamity, Roosevelt wanted to reassure the state that non all was lost, that the nihilists would non subvert the authorities, and that the state would travel on. He sought non to sway the boat, but promised to pick up the mantle where McKinley had left it. As portion of transporting on Roosevelt left the cabinet which McKinley had selected in topographic point and followed through with many other appointees which McKinley had in the plants. The state was in the thick of an economic recovery, and TR did non desire to make anything to interrupt it. Roosevelt like most other public functionaries enjoyed the bang of power. As President TR sought to redefine the authorization of the office of head executive. Unlike most of his predecessors, who believed that the President should merely execute undertakings granted by the Constitution, Roosevelt inverted this and believed that the President should make everything in his power for the people, except what was purely forbidden by the Constitution. He therefore did a great trade to spread out the powers of the Chief Executive. Trust Breaking The first major issue that would command the full attending of the new President and much of the intelligence of the twenty-four hours was the issue of trust busting. In 1895 the Supreme Court laid the basis for TR & # 8217 ; s conflict by governing in the Knight instance that the American Sugar Refining Company & # 8217 ; s monopoly of sugar production could non lawfully be stopped by Congress since Congress merely had the authorization to modulate interstate commercialism. It ruled that the American Sugar Refining Company merely marginally cover in commercialism. With the doors therefore unfastened many amalgamations were taking topographic point in the state organizing immense monopolistic trusts. For his portion Theodore Roosevelt did non experience that all of these trusts were bad, merely those who sought to derive wealth through taking advantage of the people. Those corporations, which kept as their end the intent of fostering the common good, would be left entirely to do an honorable net income. One such company which Roosevelt felt must be taken on was the Northern Securities Company. This keeping company had formed under Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s ticker, and had bought up most of the railwaies of the Northwest. Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s prior bad feelings in traffics with the railwaies as a cow man didn & # 8217 ; t assist the Northern Securities opportunities of avoiding his alert eyes. What made this instance different from the Knight instance was the obvious fact that the railwaies dealt invariably in interstate commercialism, thereby falling under the Sherman Act. It didn & # 8217 ; t ache the fact that before this instance could come before the Supreme Court Roosevelt would hold the opportunity to name a new justice to make full a vacancy. His choice of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. helped to make up one’s mind the instance in favour of Roosevelt and the authorities. His onslaught on the Northern Securities Company in February of 1902 sent a iciness through Wall Street. Roosevelt knew that he must be careful in his traffics, because as a Republican, he would surely necessitate the aid of large concern to acquire reelected. J.P. Morgan, the adult male behind the Northern Securities Company, paid a visit to the White House to guarantee that Roosevelt was non be aftering to assail all of his involvements. He left assured that Roosevelt would merely assail those that he deemed were making something incorrect. With this confidence a existent terror on Wall Street was avoided. To modulate much of the trust issues the Roosevelt Administration began the Department of Commerce and Labor and within that section the Bureau of Corporations. The Philippines Not all of Roosevelt & # 8217 ; s jobs in his first twelvemonth in office were of a domestic nature. As a strong patriot, Roosevelt believed that the United States should keep on to the Philippines, which had been taken during the Spanish American war. Many in the state were still clamouring that the Philippines should be given its independency. Roosevelt believed it was the moral responsibility of the United States to hang on to the Philippines until the Filipinos could be brought to a higher criterion of civilisation and self-determination. This issue, nevertheless, came to a caput when it was revealed that American military governments in the Philippines had been prosecuting in all sorts of hideous anguish in order to maintain the Rebels down. Ironically these anguishs were far worse so the 1s the Spanish had inflicted on the Cuban & # 8217 ; s which had TR shouting for Cuban independency before the Spanish American War. Roosevelt would non alter his chauvinistic position of the Philippines, but he did see that justness was brought against those responsible for the anguish. The Coal Strike In the spring of 1902 Roosevelt once more faced a job which would derive the attending of the state, and more significantly of the large concern involvements. For the 2nd clip in two old ages the coal mineworkers under the leading of John Mitchell would travel out on work stoppage, protesting the hapless work conditions and wages of the coal mineworkers. Roosevelt watched the state of affairs carefully, but didn & # 8217 ; t believe that Constitutionally he could make a thing about the state of affairs. Mark Hanna, the adult male behind McKinley had stepped in merely two old ages earlier and convinced the proprietors of the mine to give the mineworkers a 10 per centum rise, and therefore avoid the more scarey idea of William Jennings Bryan, the Great Commoner, in the White House. The colony two old ages prior had made neither side happy, so when Roosevelt approached Hanna to work out another trade, both sides categorically refused. The economic and political branchings of the coal work stoppage could turn out
to be disastrous to Roosevelt. If he sided with the coal miners, he could further alienate the big business men whom he would need to gain the presidency of his own accord in 1904. Yet, with coal being the main source of fuel in the nation at that time, to let it go on could shut down the nation economically and have many Americans suffering from the cold if the strike dragged on into the winter. Roosevelt decided to try to bring the two parties together, with himself being the mediator. After this first meeting, Roosevelt quickly realized that John Mitchell was the level headed one, and that the coal operators were pig headed and arrogant. The talks quickly broke down, and Roosevelt knew that he must come up with an alternative plan to get the owners to come to their senses. As luck would have it, one of the operators wrote a letter, which was published, in which he described the operators of the mines as ordained by God to manage the mines in the way they saw fit. Being thus ordained by God, the miners should accept the terms of the operators as the very will of God. This letter which mysteriously came into print served to outrage the public against the operators. Roosevelt also laid plans with General J.M. Schofield to be prepared to take over and run the mines should the need arise. These plans were also mysteriously leaked to the operators, and they instantly became far more willing to negotiate. The operators of the mines thus agreed to binding arbitration by a panel of experts. Here also there was a sticking point. The operators wished to have the panel stacked in their favor. The minors as expected rejected the panel as presented by the operators, but came back with an alternative panel. This offer the operators flatly refused. After pushing the operators very hard, Roosevelt finally got a panel, which was satisfactory to both sides and the crisis was averted. With the Congressional elections of 1902 quickly approaching Roosevelt would once again take to the stump to further the cause of the Republican Party. Not only would the election of Republicans make his work as President easier, it would also indirectly show if the people of the nation were behind his policies as President. A poor showing by Republicans would no doubt be construed as a vote against Roosevelt. This campaign however almost proved to be fatal for the President. On September 3, 1902 while traveling in a carriage with the Governor of Massachusetts and his private secretary George Cortelyou, the carraige was struck by an out-of-control trolley car. The impact instantly killed on of Roosevelt’s bodyguards, and badly injured Roosevelt’s leg. After a short rest at Oyster Bay, he once again attempted to take to the campaign trail. The leg quickly became infected, and emergency surgery became necessary to save his leg, and possibly his life. After the surgery, Roosevelt was forced to rest and confined to a wheelchair for several weeks. The Big Stick Before the end of 1902 another international crisis would face Roosevelt and the nation. Germany was a nation on the rise, and looking to expand their commercial base. Germany had thus opened a line of credit to several of the South American countries. The problem arose when Venezuela, under the leadership of Cipriano Castro, decided not to pay back the loans owed to Germany, using the loans as a rallying cry for national unity. The Germans wanting their money with the help of the British, who were also owed money, set up a blockade around Venezuela. Roosevelt believed that the rebellious South American country deserved a good spanking, but the thought of the Germans gaining a foothold in South America gave Roosevelt cause for alarm. Under the Monroe Doctrine, the United States had set the Americas off limits to the Europeans and Roosevelt with all of his national pride could not back down to the European intervention. Kaiser Wilhelm III intended to send German troops ashore to occupy the land temporarily until the Venezuela came up with the money. Roosevelt did not trust the Kaiser and recommended that the Germans resolve the problem through arbitration. The Germans refused arbitration and insisted that the occupation would only be temporary. What “temporary” meant was any one’s guess, but Roosevelt didn’t intend to find out. Roosevelt sent word to Admiral Dewey to assemble the battle fleet for ‘maneuvers’ near Puerto Rico and to be ready at a moments notice for Venezuela. Roosevelt then informed the German ambassador, Theodor von Hollenben, that if the Germans did not seek arbitration with Venezuela that he would send in the American fleet to insure that the Germans would not occupy Venezuela. The ambassador then asked Roosevelt if he were aware of the consequences of that move, with Roosevelt assuring him that he was. A week passed with no response. When finally the ambassador met again with Roosevelt their conversation came to a close with no comment on the response from Germany on Roosevelt’s statement. When Roosevelt asked the ambassador if he had a response from his government the von Hollenben said that he did not. Roosevelt then informed him that in that case he would step up the time table twenty-four hours from his original schedule and occupy Venezuela with the American fleet. This certainly got the ambassador’s attention and shortly before the deadline a response came from the Kaiser that indeed they would seek arbitration in the Venezuela matter. The arbitration occurred at the Hague and once again a national conflict was avoided by Roosevelt’s use of the ‘Big Stick.’ Panama Canal In 1903 Roosevelt turned his attention to the Isthmian Canal. The main issue was which route would the canal take. One proposed route was through Panama and the other through Nicaragua. Panama at the time was under the government control of Colombia. Over the past several decades, however, the Panamanians had revolted scores of times seeking their independence from Colombia. The Colombians over the last few years only maintained control through the help of the U.S. fleet. With the debate raging in the U.S. over which site to choose, both countries were courting the U.S. to choose their site. A volcano in Nicaragua may have been the final straw in making the choice for Panama. At the Pan-American Congress in Mexico the Colombian delegate signed the Hay-Herran Treaty to insure that Panama would be the site. The Republic of Colombia was under the control of a dictator, J.M. Maroquin, who had seized power in July of 1900. At the time he had been elected Vice-President, but assumed office when he had the President M. A. Sanclamente killed. In 1903 the French Panama Company had rights to build a canal through Panama. The U.S., however, prior to the Hay-Herran Treaty worked with the French Panama Company and signed the Hay-Pauncefote treaty in order to get rights to build the canal. The U.S. Hay-Herran treaty offered the payment of $250,000 a year plus a $10 million dollar signing bonus to give the U.S. control of a six mile wide strip of land for ninety-nine years. This treaty would need to be ratified by both countries before the digging could begin. To Roosevelt’s surprise the Colombian government rejected the treaty. It was believed that Maroquin wanted to try to squeeze more money from the Americans and thus created a puppet Congress to reject the legislation. The puppet Congress suggested that the U.S. wait another year before the Congress would reconvene and possibly ratify the treaty. The Colombians wanted to wait another year, because by that time the French Panama Company would have to forfeit its rights to build the canal, thus leaving more money for the government of Colombia. Roosevelt was outraged by this and began to think of other plans. The Panamanians still seeking there independence from Colombia saw a golden opportunity in the Colombian rejection of the treaty. Roosevelt received information that the Panamanians might again be ready to revolt. Once again U.S. warships were sent to Panama only this time they were sent to protect the insurgents. Panama declared its independence and the United States immediately recognized their independence. A treaty was signed with Panama and the U.S. began construction of the Panama Canal. In November of 1906 Roosevelt would break precedence by going to Panama to inspect the work of the canal and thus become the first sitting President to leave American soil. The 1904 election was very important to Roosevelt. His ascent to the Presidency was through the death of McKinley, and he desperately wanted to win the prize of his own accord. His Democratic counterpart was New York jurist Alton Parker. Parker and the Democrats attacked the Republicans saying that they were shaking down the large trusts to get the financial backing they needed to carry on the campaign. In the end the election did not wind up being close as Roosevelt received 7.6 million votes to Parker’s 5.1 million. In the electoral college Parker only received 140 votes to Roosevelt’s 336. The most shocking thing about the entire election was TR’s statement on election night that he would not run for a third term. The statement would come back to haunt him in later years, but in 1908 he remained true to his promise. In 1904 a war broke out between Japan and Russia. The Japanese defeated the Russians early using a sneak attack (the same approach they would use years later against the Americans in World War II). The Japanese continued to win victory after victory, but the Russians were not seeking peace. They instead counted on their Baltic battle fleet to deliver a decisive blow to the Japanese fleet. A decisive blow was given, but not by the Russians. The Japanese fleet annihilated this Russian force in May of 1905. The Japanese for their part had won significant gains and sought a quick peace so as not to bring on the ire of the rest of the European nations. The Russians after the defeat of their Baltic fleet understood they would not be able to win back what was already lost. Both sides looked for peace, but the terms of that peace would be the sticking point. The Japanese, not wanting to look like they were looking for peace, quietly came to Roosevelt asking him to approach the Russians about a peace. The czar also not wanting to appear to be seeking peace, also agreed to come to the table. Both sides wanting the peace table to be in Washington and not at the Hague with Roosevelt himself as the mediator. Because of the heat in Washington during the summer months, Roosevelt had the negotiations moved to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The primary problem was that each side had over zealous expectations as to what to get out of the peace. The Russians for their part did not want to pay any indemnity to the Japanese even though a defeat of that nature would have required it. The Japanese had promised their people at home a large indemnity and it would be difficult for them to save face with their people returning home with less. Roosevelt worked both sides trying to get them closer together. The Japanese accepted Roosevelt’s suggestion to change the terms of the agreement from indemnity to a payment for the transfer of control of lands to ease the language and help the czar safe face, but the Russians would have nothing to do with this. Nicolas had fears of revolution from his own people, and felt that showing any weakness toward the Japanese would push the revolutionaries over the edge. Roosevelt also worked on the Japanese by insisting that holding up the peace negotiations over an indemnity might cost them more in the long run due to the expense of the war. Roosevelt also appealed to the Japanese high moral standard in the advent of them being a world leader to bring peace. At the same time, Roosevelt appealed to the British, who had much closer ties to Japan, to put pressure on the Japanese. Roosevelt appealed to the German Kaiser to speak with the czar in order to get the czar to move on the issues. Roosevelt hoped that the Kaiser, whom the czar trusted, would be far more convincing than anything which came from Washington, of whom the czar did not trust. Finally the Japanese agreed to drop all thoughts of receiving any indemnity, realizing that Roosevelt was right that it would in the long run cost them more to continue the war. In the end, Roosevelt persevered and brought peace to the region. For his part in the Russo-Japanese Treaty Roosevelt would win a Nobel Peace Prize in 1906, becoming the first American to win any Nobel Prize.