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Surveies Essay, Research Paper

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1. Petrarch.- Called the & # 8220 ; Father of all Humanism. & # 8221 ; Revered

Roman Cicero above all

others. Followed Cicero & # 8217 ; s illustration of elequence and set

accent upon linguistic communication such as

Latin and Greek.

2. Medici.- Wealthy banking household commanding Florence.

Had much influence in

authorities and influenced The Signoria, the opinion council

in Florence. Created a lasting

dynasty with kids who had power.

3. Nepotism.- Keeping Position in the Church within the

household.

4. Peace of Ausburg.- Ended forty old ages of religous

battle in Germany. Through the

pact the emperor of Germany allowed the state to

set up the faith of theri

people. Protestant princes would regulate Prtestant provinces,

Catholic princes Catholic provinces.

5. Bill of rights.- The English constitutional colony

of 1689, corroborating the deposition

of James II and the accession of William and Mary,

vouching the Protestant

sequence, and puting down the rules of parliamentary

domination.

6. Edict of Nantes.- An edict of 1598 signed by Henry IV of

France allowing acceptance to

Protestants and stoping the Gallic Wars of Religion. It was

revoked by Louis XIV in

1685.

7. Boccaccio.- Giovanni Boccaccio ( 1313 75 ) , Italian

author, poet, and humanist. He is

most celebrated for the Decameron ( 1348 58 ) , a aggregation of a

hundred narratives told by 10

immature people who have moved to the state to get away the

Black Death.

8. Patronage.- Support given by members of Rennaisance

Society. Initiation and

acknowledging the humanistic disciplines.

9. Jesuits.- A member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman

Catholic order of priests founded

by St Ignatius Loyola, St Francis Xavier, and others in

1534, to make missional work. The

order was avid in opposing the Reformation. Despite

periodic persecution it has

retained an of import influence in Catholic idea and

instruction.

10. Thomas More.- More, Thomas ( 1478-1535 ) . One of the most

respected figures in

English history, Thomas More was a solon, bookman, and

writer. He was noted for his

humor and besides for his devotedness to his faith. More was

executed as a treasonist for his refusal

to admit King Henry VIII & # 8217 ; s domination over the church.

The narrative of More & # 8217 ; s life

and decease became familiar to many through Robert Bolt & # 8217 ; s

drama, & # 8216 ; A Man for All Seasons & # 8217 ; ,

foremost performed in 1960.

Utopia-greek word significance, & # 8221 ; no topographic point & # 8221 ; Plato wrote this

fundamental law undertaking the ultimate

job of political relations, & # 8221 ; How should the province be ordered? & # 8221 ; His

answere was an image of a merely

society, created by a philosopher-king and ruled by hand-

picked organic structure guards.His ideal

province resembles the Greek polis in size.Sir Thomas Moore

created a 2nd Utopia, it was

a convincing societal sarcasm. his vision at a carefully

planned and for good contended

society.

Frederick the Great-ruller of Prussia after male parent

( Frederick I ) Frederick the Great had a

great love music, against his male parent & # 8217 ; s will, he in secret

collected any books he could happen on

the topic. When he became king, his love of music came

out in the unfastened and he began

to entertain many people. Frederick & # 8217 ; s military art

earned him his rubric, & # 8220 ; the Great. & # 8221 ; He

besides forged an confederation w/the Prussian aristocracy,

interigation the minto a incorporate province. Angstrom

tightly organized control adminstration, which depended

upon the cooperation of the local

aristocracy directed both military and bureaucratic personal businesss.

At the centre, Frederick worked

indefatigably to supervise his government.Frederick declared, & # 8220 ; I

am the state. & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; I am the 1st

retainer of the state. & # 8221 ; He codified the Torahs of Prussia,

abolished anguish and capital

penalty, and instituted agricultural techniques imported

from the provinces of western

Europe. By the terminal of Frederick & # 8217 ; s reign, Prussia had

go a theoretical account for bureaucratic

organisation, military reform, and enlightened regulation.

Primogeniture-inheritance by eldest boy

Adam Smith-he was a Scots political theoretician whose

work, & # 8221 ; The Wealth of Nations, & # 8221 ; was

the 1st great work of economic analysis in European

history. Smith had wide-ranging

involvements and wrote with equal authorization about

fabrication, population, and trade. He

was the 1st to develop the philosophy of free trade, which he

called & # 8220 ; laissez-faire. & # 8221 ; Smith

argued that the authorities that governed least governed

best, and he was an early critic

of protective duties and monopolies.

Francis Bacon-leading protagonist of scientific research in

England. He proposed a

scientific method through inductive empiical

experimantaion. He believed that

experiments should be carefully recorded so that consequences

were both dependable and quotable.

he advocated the unfastened universe of the scientist over the

secret universe of the prestidigitator. In his

legion Hagiographas, he stressed the practical impact of

scientific duscivery and even wrote

a Utopian work in which scientific discipline appeared as the Jesus of

humanity. Although he was non

himself a scientific research worker, Bacon used his

considerable influence to back up scientific

undertakings in England.

Versailles-the greatest castle of the greatest male monarch of the

greatest province in 17th century

Europe. It was a contemplation of Louis XIV and of France.

Van Eyck-not found

Michelangelo-Renaissance paiter and sculpturer ; was

responsible for such great plants as the

ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and & # 8220 ; David, & # 8221 ; a sculpture.

Shakespeare-famous playwriter of the mediaeval period ; his

plants inclueded & # 8220 ; Macbeth & # 8221 ;

and & # 8220 ; Hamlet. & # 8221 ; Supplying amusement for all and expressed

his positions through his dramas of

certain state of affairss.

Johann Tetzet-he sold indulgences which inspired Martin

Luther & # 8217 ; s 95 theses. Tetzel

answered with 122 of his ain but was rebuked and disowned

by the Catholics.

95 Thesis & # 8211 ; These were posted by Martin Luther, professor

of divinity at Wittenberg

University, on the castle church assailing the sale of

indulgences.

Anglican & # 8211 ; the official Protestant Christian faith of

the English province

Humanism & # 8211 ; Renaissance intellectualism and jubilation of

the human as an person

Galileo Galilei & # 8211 ; Italian uranologist ; most celebrated scientist

of the European new scientific

revolution ; credited for telescope and helocentrism ( Sun is

cardinal, Earth around Sun ) for

which he was placed under house apprehension by Church for most

of his life

Huguenots & # 8211 ; followings of Calvinsism in Western Europe

Laissez-faire & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; self-govern, & # 8221 ; the theory of John Locke

that people should regulate

themselves and keep the sovereignty

Voltaire & # 8211 ; Gallic intellectual ; wrote Philosophical Letterss

Refering the English State

after sing England for two old ages in which he explains

the illustriousness of spiritual

tolerance as practiced in England, the theory for which he

is known

Charles I & # 8211 ; This swayer of Spain was besides Charles V, Holy

Roman Emperor ; as a Holy

Roman Emperor, he made peace with Protestants unlike with

Spain

Protestant & # 8211 ; Religion based on the original ( now known as

Catholic ) rules but

changed to organize new Christian faith ( Protest-ant )

The Prince & # 8211 ; Machiavelli wrote this explicating how & # 8220 ; work forces

must either be pampered or

crushed ; & # 8221 ; most of import and contraversal authorship of

Renaissance ; begins scientific discipline of

political relations

Luther:

-entered Augustinian monastery and ordained priest in 1507

-received doctor’s degree and appointed to theology module in

1512

-opposed the sale of indulgences

-wrote philosophy of redemption by religion ( sola-fida )

-wrote 95 Thesis ( things incorrectly with Catholic Church )

-excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521

-his faith, Lutheranism challenged Catholic Church

Balance of Power: distribution of power in which no individual

state is able to rule.

Kepler:

-German uranologist and natural philosopher

-noted for verifying the three Torahs of planetal gesture

( known as Keplers Laws )

-published Cosmographic Mystery in 1596

-Also published Epitome of Copernican Astronomy ( book of

Keplers finds )

Henry IV:

-King of England ( 1399-1413 )

-Leader of party that opposed King Richard II

-was exiled for six old ages by King Richard II because of

arguement with Thomas

Mowbray

-raised ground forces, invaded England and captured Richard

-elected male monarch by parliament

-Scot tryed attaching English but were defeated

Fronde:

-series of rebellions against French monarchy between 1648-1653

-Louis XIV was king

-parliament and citizens were against the male monarchs heavy

revenue enhancement policies

Charles louis de secondat:

-french author and legal expert

-wrote Iranian Letterss

-it satirized modern-day French political relations, societal

conditions and eccesiastical affairs and

literature

-book was really popular and one of enlightenments earliest

plants

William and Mary:

-William revived the Grand Alliance and initiated a monolithic

land war against France and

Spain

-Mary restored catholism in England

Heliocentric:

-atronomical theory thata the Sun is the centre of the

solar system

-first postulated by Polish uranologist Nicolas Copernicas

Index:

-catalog of forrbidden books

-published by Roman Catholic Church

-if U were to read, sell or convey any literature w/out

permission U would be

excommunicated

I couldn & # 8217 ; t happen the word & # 8220 ; raison vitamin D & # 8217 ; etat & # 8221 ;

John Calvin-Founder of Calvinism which is a faith that

was independant of the province,

ego government, and hence was able to boom in clip

of crisis. Calvinisim emphasized

the beliefs of predestination.

Devine Right Theory-Theory that a King has the right to

regulation as stated to him by God.

Isaac Newton-Greatest of all English scientists,

mathematician. Studied natural philosophies and

uranology. Discovered Gravity

Sun King-Louis XIV, Richelou & # 8217 ; s replacement and Cheif

Administrator

30 Yrs. War-War permanent 30 old ages, affecting the Bohemian

phase, Danish phase, Swedish

stage, and the Frech and Swedish stage. The war ended with

the Peace of Westphalia.

John Locke-Theorist of the Revolution of 1688, Developed

contract theory of Gov & # 8217 ; T,

Designed to keep individual & # 8217 ; s natural rights of life,

autonomy, and belongings

James II-King of England, Attempted to utilize his power of

assignment to foil restraints

that Parliament imposed upon him.

Geocentric Theory-The Earth is the centre of the Universe

and everything revolves around

it.

Counter Reformation-Rebut taking topographic point after reformation,

Aggressive Catholic response

that was determined to run into Protestantism caput on and drive

it. Militant Church

1. Rabelais: I have no thought & # 8230 ; couldn & # 8217 ; t happen em and I

Don & # 8217 ; Ts have any thought what he or it has

to make with.

2. Indulgences: ( Page 393 ) A part of the exchequer of

good plants performed by the

righteous Christians throughout the ages ; granted to those

who desired to expiate for their

wickednesss. * Major factor in the reformation. Most of Luther & # 8217 ; s

95 Thesiss attacked the church

and the sale of such Indulgences.

3. Philosophes: ( Page 578 ) ( No direct definition ) & # 8220 ; A

monster in society who feels under

no duty towards it manners and ethical motives, its

propernesss, its political relations, or it & # 8217 ; s faith.

One may anticipate anything from work forces of their ilk. & # 8221 ;

Philosophes saw jurisprudence ( constructs ) , and

applied the Torahs to people – & gt ; natural rights. They

believed that nature was non in difference.

4. Peace of Lodi: ( Page 344 ) ( 1454-Italian Renaissance )

The Five powers ( Naples, the

Papal States, Florence, Milan, and Venice ) established the

peace. It created 2 balanced

confederations: Firenze and Milan, Venice and Naples. The

pledged common nonaggression.

The Peace lasted 40 old ages.

5. Leviathan: ( Page 504 ) Thomas Hobbes greatest work. In

the literature, Hobbes

argues that earlier civil society had been formed, worlds

lived in a barbarian province of nature.

No morality or jurisprudence. Peoples so came together to organize

authorities for one intent:

self-preservation. Hobbes believed that without

authorities, they were determined to populate

a life that was & # 8220 ; lone, hapless, awful, beastly and short. & # 8221 ;

6. Renascence: ( begins on page 322 ) ( 1350-1550 )

Literally: Rebirth. An epoch of rapid

passages. Had three distinguishable stages: 1: ( 1350-1400 )

Worsening population, bring outing

of classical texts and experimentation in a assortment of art

2: ( 1400-1500 ) Cultural valves

and artistic and literary accomplishments. City provinces were

able to organize authorities, slow terminal

to warfare. 3: ( 1500-1550 ) The spreading of thoughts

throughout Europe.

7. Machiavelli: ( Page 337 ) Laminitis of the & # 8220 ; Science of

Politics & # 8221 ; . Famous for his

controversial work The Prince. This book was to function as a

enchiridion for anyone who

& gt ; wanted to set up a permanent authorities. It attempts to

set down rules and illustrations

on how to keep power. The book was really of import as

good as really controversial

during the Renaissance.

8. Hume, David: ( Page 581 ) Scotish Athiest who wrote A

treatise of Human Nature and

An enquiery Refering Human Understanding. Argued that

nil could be proved to

exist with any certainty ; lone perceptual experiences existed. If

their was no certainty, so the

revealed truths of Christian faith could hold no footing.

Therefore, no G-d.

9. Puritans: ( Page 499, 502 ) Led by Oliver Cromwell

after the decapitation of Charles I.

Believeded in a big step of spiritual acceptance for

Christians.

10. Mercantilism: ( Page 534 ) A set of premises about

ecomomic activity that were

normally held throughout Europe and that guided the

policies of about every

govermnent. 2 interconnected thoughts: One: wealth of a

state resided in its stock of cherished

metal Two: Ecomonmic activity was a zero-sum game. There

was a fixed saddle horse of

money, figure of trade goods and sum of conumption.

What one state gained,

another doomed.

salons Gallic sing countries or inns where many

Enlightenment minds spread at that place Ideas

of alteration to the common adult male.

redemption by religion this is an thought that Martin Luther

idea of ; that you don & # 8217 ; t travel to

heaven because you were good, but you go to heaven because

of the sum of religion that

you have to god.

patriotism the thought of loving your state or holding

utmost pride in one & # 8217 ; s state.

copernicus a Polish scientist who thought of the thought of

heliocentrism & # 8230 ; the Sun in the

centre of the existence.

Louis 14 called the Sun King. Was the High Point in

Gallic Absolutism. Created the

castle Versailles, and started passing a batch of money

which subsequently led to the Gallic

Revolution.

Hobbes was an English philosopher who thought that

revolution was non justified unless

the authorities was non protecting the people from any

physical danger. he did non

believe in private belongings like Locke did.

glorious revolution was the & # 8220 ; revolution & # 8221 ; ( it wasn & # 8217 ; t a

war, non shootings were fired, merely a term

given to a period ) which replaced James II and the Stuart

Monarchy with William and

Mary.

Glorious Revolution besides brought about the English Bill of

Rights.

Charless 2 was the boy of the English King Charles I who

was beheaded. Charles II took

the throne after the Cromwellian Revolution.

council of Trent was the Catholic Council which tried to

brand reforms to the Catholic

Church after the reformation.

the courtier was an source to the King. normally of

France. Some illustrations are

Mazarin, and Richelu.

In Praise of Folly-a satirical book written by Erasmus

( below ) , information came from

conversations with Thomas More, praised the foolish

remarks and declared wise

remarks to be incorrect

Erasmus-first worked on Latin interlingual renditions but so

realized the importance of retrieving

Grecian texts so he dedicated his clip to interpreting Grecian

texts. Most of his books were

& # 8216 ; how-to books & # 8217 ; . Expanded Christianity to people lower in

the societal order

Simony-the purchasing or merchandising of church offices

Enlightenment-a period of clip when people started to

inquiry traditions, imposts, and

criterions and started trusting on logic and ground, some

chief people of the clip were:

Diderot, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rene Descartes, Locke,

Hobbes

Inquisition- couldn & # 8217 ; t happen this one

Richelieu-advisor of Louis XIV & # 8217 ; s chief adviser, taught Louis

to govern as an absolute

sovereign more or less the leader of France because Louis was

so immature, he merely told him

what to make, led France through many old ages of war, raised

revenue enhancements, but made France really

powerful

Castiglione-Italian writer of The Courtier ( an etiquette

book stating how to go and

& # 8216 ; ideal province retainer & # 8217 ;

Secularism-not relating to the church ( faith )

Descartes-French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist,

shared many of the same

sentiments and mathematical cogent evidence as Galileo, invented

analytic geometry, made

parts to the scientific discipline of optics and natural philosophies

Oliver Cromwell- the most of import leader of the English

Revolution, one of the

chief commanding officers of the Rebel ground forces that defeated the

forces of King Charles I, he

played a prima function in the male monarch & # 8217 ; s subsequent test and

executing named himself Lord

Defender, his primary concerns were to supply a stable

authorities and to give

acceptance to all the Puritan religious orders

Florence- An Italian metropolis, which was based upon the

foundations of money and wool. The

Medici household, wealthiest household in Florence, frequently ruled

Firenze. Firenze was the

centre of Renaissance civilization, and the wealthiest metropoliss,

until the pestilence occurred.

Balance of trade- the difference in value between imports

and exports, said to be favourable

to a county when exports are greater.

Treaty of Versailles- Peace pact between the Allies and

Germany in 1919. It put

restrictions on the German ground forces, and the land tally and owned

by Germany. The harsh

penalties set upon Germany were non strong plenty to

forestall them from striking

once more 20 old ages subsequently.

Treaty of Westphalia- Treaty stoping the 30 old ages war in

1648. Series of understandings

that established the lineations of political geographics of

Europe.

Gutenberg ( 1400-68 ) – German pressman who was the first to

print with movable type.

Printed the Bible, was first book printed with movable type

in Mainz Germany.

The City Of God- written by Augustine, it was a defence of

Christian religion from the charge

that the catastrophe resulted from Rome abandoning its

traditional Gods. Become a enquiry

into the nature of human society.

Rousseau- A French philosopher and societal reformist who

published several books,

particularly The Social Contract. He was portion of the

Enlightenment.

Ignatius Loyola ( 1491-1556 ) – Spanish ecclesiastic ; laminitis

of the Society of Jesus.

Loyola & # 8217 ; s society became Jesuits who were soldiers of God.

James I- succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I, he was non a

loveable sovereign but he was

generous. He was non liked cause he succeeded a fable and

he was Scots. Was King

of England and Ireland from 1603-1625.

? ? ? ? & # 8211 ; & gt ; need assist for this one Cervantes- Spanish novelist.

( 1547-1616 )

Florence- An Italian metropolis, which was based upon the

foundations of money and wool. The

Medici household, wealthiest household in Florence, frequently ruled

Firenze. Firenze was the

centre of Renaissance civilization, and the wealthiest metropoliss,

until the pestilence occurred.

Balance of trade- the difference in value between imports

and exports, said to be favourable

to a county when exports are greater.

Treaty of Versailles- Peace pact between the Allies and

Germany in 1919. It put

restrictions on the German ground forces, and the land tally and owned

by Germany. The harsh

penalties set upon Germany were non strong plenty to

forestall them from striking

once more 20 old ages subsequently.

Treaty of Westphalia- Treaty stoping the 30 old ages war in

1648. Series of understandings

that established the lineations of political geographics of

Europe.

Gutenberg ( 1400-68 ) – German pressman who was the first to

print with movable type.

Printed the Bible, was first book printed with movable type

in Mainz Germany.

The City Of God- written by Augustine, it was a defence of

Christian religion from the charge

that the catastrophe resulted from Rome abandoning its

traditional Gods. Become a enquiry

into the nature of human society.

Rousseau- A French philosopher and societal reformist who

published several books,

particularly The Social Contract. He was portion of the

Enlightenment.

Ignatius Loyola ( 1491-1556 ) – Spanish ecclesiastic ; laminitis

of the Society of Jesus.

Loyola & # 8217 ; s society became Jesuits who were soldiers of God.

James I- succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I, he was non a

loveable sovereign but he was

generous. He was non liked cause he succeeded a fable and

he was Scots. Was King

of England and Ireland from 1603-1625.

secularism the thought that there is a separation of Church

and of nature. The motion

off the church and more toward scientific discipline and engineering for

thoughts on adult male and nature.

Descartes Gallic philosopher, mathematician, and

scientist, transferred European Ideas

from that of the Medieval Ages to those of more modern

features.

Oliver Crumble was the English Lord Protector during the

Cromwellian Revolution

between the reigns of Charles I and Charles II. He set up

a Protestant Commonwealth,

which the people of England objected to. His reign did non

last long, and shortly the people

forced the authorities to alter back to the Absolute

Monarchy.

Black Death- clip between 1347 and 1352 when 1/2 to 1/3 of

Europe & # 8217 ; s population died

from a combination of bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic

pestilence & # 8211 ; the disease was carried

by fleas who bit into septic rats and came to Italy from

Asia on a merchandiser vas.

Natural Rights- rights that every homo is entitled to such

as the right to breath

Catherine the Great- ruled from 1762-1796 & # 8211 ; her policies

were complex and were

influenced by the Gallic thoughts of societal justness and

aristocracy of the human race but were

besides influenced by the traditional Russian ideals of an

absolute regulation & # 8211 ; the most of import

event of her reign was the constitution of a legislative

committee to reexamine the Torahs of

Soviet union

The Social Contract- one of the most of import plants of

societal theory and was written

by enlightenment philosphe, Rousseau

Diderot- editor of & # 8220 ; The Encyclopedia, & # 8221 ; which was one of the

greatest accomplishments of the

clip & # 8211 ; it attempted to sum up all acquired cognition know

at the clip

Versalius- a great castle in France for King Louis XIV & # 8211 ;

castle had immense gardens,

fountains and life size statues

da Vinci- one of the celebrated painters of the Renaissance

whose accomplishments besides included

scientific and proficient enterprises & # 8211 ; his most celebrated

pictures were & # 8220 ; The Last Supper & # 8221 ; and

& # 8220 ; The Mona Lisa & # 8221 ;

& # 8220 ; Eternal City & # 8221 ; – I need aid with this 1

Peter Breugel- a painter signifier Belgium who painted subjects of

state landscape and

peasant life

Habsburg- Alliess of the Luxenbourgs and begun as a child

comitial household in the part of

the Black forest & # 8211 ; they aquired district from the E and

when Rudolf I of Habsburg was

elected emperor he was subsequently dismissed as & # 8220 ; hapless & # 8221 ;

Spanish Armada- comprised of over 130 ships, pride of the

Spanish Armada

and Lusitanian naval forcess. These ships were bigger and

stronger than anything

owned by the English. However, the English ships were

faster and more

manuevarable. With these advantages, the English prevented

the Spanish from

making the ports in the Netherlands and destructing

single ships.

Hohenzollern- name of a European dynasty whose opinion line

became voters

of Brandenburg, Kings of Prussia, and emperors of Germany.

Deist- believed in the being of God on rational

evidences merely. Believed

that nature conformed to its ain mercenary Torahs and

operated without

Godhead intercession. The opposed the ritual signifiers of both

Catholic and

Protestant worship and the function of the Church in instruction.

Low Countries & # 8211 ; part in northwest Europe lying on the

seashore of the North

Sea between France and Germany. Netherlands, Belgium, and

Luxembourg.

Albrecht Durer- German creative person ; marveled at the subtle

inventiveness of the work forces

in those distant lands after sing a show of Aztec

art.

Physiocrats- group of Gallic minds ; thought that land

was wealth and

argued that agricultural activity should take first

precedence in province

reforms. They besides came to believe that the gov T should

cease to step in

with private economic activity. Laissez faire, laissez

passer. ( Let it

be, Let it go. )

Encyclopedia- edited by Dierot, 35 volumes ; attempted to

sum up all

acquired cognition and to dispose of all imposed

superstitious notions.

Candide- written by Voltaire ; philosophical novel that

recounts the

escapades and bad lucks of Candide, and satirising

optimism by his coach

Pangloss

Alexander the Great- King of Macedonia ; conquered Iranian

imperium and

annexed it into Macedonia ; conquered about all the so

known universe and

gave new way to history.

Enlightened despot- a male monarch that believes in the thoughts of

the Enlightenment

The Divine Comedy- written by Dante ; position of the whole

Christian existence ;

Dante s personal sum-up of all that is good and bad in

mediaeval civilization and

political relations.

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