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& # 8220 ; hard-bitten fiction & # 8221 ;

a tough, tough-minded manner of American offense authorship that brought a new tone of crude pragmatism or naturalism to the field of detective fiction. Hard-bitten fiction used in writing sex and force, vivid but frequently seamy urban backgrounds, and fast-paced, slangy duologue. Recognition for the innovation of the genre belongs to Dashiell Hammett ( 1894 1961 ) , a former Pinkerton investigator and subscriber to the mush magazines, whose first genuinely hard-bitten narrative, Fly Paper, appeared in Black Mask magazine in 1929. Uniting his ain experiences with the realistic influence of authors such as Ernest Hemingway and John Dos Passos, Hammett created a definitely American type of detective fiction that was separate and distinguishable from the English enigma narrative normally set in a state house populated by cooks, pantrymans, and relations, a form that had been slavishly followed by American authors for coevalss. The first of Hammett & # 8217 ; s detective novels was Red Harvest ( 1929 ) . His chef-d’oeuvre is by and large believed to be The Maltese Falcon ( 1930 ) , which introduced Sam Spade, H

is most celebrated sleuth. His most successful narrative, The Thin Man ( 1932 ) , was the last of an extraordinary quintet of novels.

Hammett & # 8217 ; s inventions were incorporated in the hard-bitten melodramas of James M. Cain ( 1892 1977 ) , peculiarly in such early plants as The Postman Always Rings Twice ( 1934 ) and Double Indemnity ( 1936 ) . Another replacement was Raymond Chandler ( 1888 1959 ) , whose novels, such as The Big Sleep ( 1939 ) , Farewell, My Lovely ( 1940 ) , and The Small Sister ( 1949 ) , trade with corruptness and racketeering in Southern California. Other of import authors of the hard-bitten school are George Harmon Coxe ( 1901 84 ) , writer of such thrillers as Murder with Pictures ( 1935 ) and Eye Witness ( 1950 ) , and W.R. Burnett ( 1899 1982 ) , who wrote Little Caesar ( 1929 ) and The Asphalt Jungle ( 1949 ) . Hard-bitten fiction finally degenerated into the utmost sensationalism and undisguised sadism of what Ellery Queen & # 8217 ; s Mystery Magazine called the guts-gore-and-gals-school, as found in the plants of Mickey Spillane, author of such phenomenal best-sellers as I, the Jury ( 1947 ) .

The plants of the hard-bitten school have been extensively translated into movies, frequently through consecutive versions tailored to different coevalss of motion-picture fans.

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