& # 8217 ; s Reponse To Mather Essay, Research Paper
Sewall s Response to Mather s The Negro Christianized
Cotton Mather and Samuel Sewall clearly disagree on the legality of bondage. For Sewall, it is most of import that slaves be given the same freedom as all work forces ; for Mather, it is most of import that slaves be Christianized and given the chance of ageless visible radiation through the grace of Jesus Christ. Christianizing slaves, harmonizing to Sewall, neither makes ownership of them legal nor improves the Providence of their Masterss.
Mather indicates that Christianization of African slaves will accrue benefits to their Masterss in the following life while Sewall believes that Christianization ameliorates the possibility of their Masterss having God s grace. Harmonizing to Mather, You deny your Maestro in Heaven, if you do nil to convey your Servants unto the Knowledge and Service of that glorious Master ( Mather, 335 ) . So to Mather, a maestro disserves non merely God and Africans but besides himself by losing the chance to Christianize his slaves. On the other manus, Sewall writes, The extraordinary and comprehensive Benefit accruing to the Church of God, and to Joseph personally, did non rectify his brethrens Sale of him ( Sewall, 326 ) . Basically, Sewall believes that any effort to better the quality of a slave s life ( Christianization or otherwise ) does non outweigh the immorality of their purchase and ownership. For he that shall in this instance plead Alteration of Property, seems to hold forfeited a great portion of his ain claim to Humanity ( Sewall, 324 ) . Consequently, proprietors, in Sewall s position, endanger their ain redemption ( Humanity ) by having slaves.
In add-on, Sewall feels that it is incorrect to divide Africans from their native land and that efforts at Christianization, if any, should happen in Africa ; nevertheless, Mather writes that Christianisation offers both removal from their barbarian land and redemption. To Christianize them correctly, will be to make full them with all Goodness. Christianity is nil but the really Mass of Universal Goodness ( Mather, 335 ) . In add-on to this Goodness, of class, Mather believes that Christianization offers the hope of redemption to Africans. Sewall does non needfully differ with Mather s place on the benefits of Christianization ; nevertheless, Christians should transport it to all the World, as the Israelites were to transport it towards another ( Sewall, 327 ) . In other words, Christians of the New World and Europe, in order to truly better the state of affairs of native Africans, should offer Christianity to Africans in their native lands. And for work forces stubbornly to prevail in keeping their Neighbors and Brethren under the Rigor of ageless Bondage, seems to be no proper manner of deriving Assurance that God has given them Religious Freedom ( Sewall, 327 ) . Therefore, the Christianization of Africans in Ameri
ca does non offer hope of redemption to native Africans as they are still bound to their Masterss and non to God.
Furthermore, Mather believes that the jurisprudence of Christianity allows for bondage, while Sewall argues that the Bible offers grounds to the contrary. Mather would wish the reader to presume that scriptural justification for bondage exists. He writes, Suppose these Wretched Negroes, to be the Offspring of Cham ( which yet is non so really certain, ) ( Mather, 334 ) . This is Mather s method of avoiding the subject of scriptural justification wholly. This is in blunt contrast to Sewall who writes, But it is possible that by cursory reading, this Text may hold been mistaken. For Canaan is the Person Cursed three times over without the mentioning of Cham ( Sewall, 325 ) . Sewall merely states that those condemned to slavery are non the Africans that work forces enslave today. Subsequently in his piece, Mather writes, What Law is it, that Sets the Baptized Slave at Liberty? Not the Law of Christianity: that allows of Slavery ; merely it wondrous Dulcifies, and Mollifies, and Moderates the Circumstances of it ( Mather, 336 ) . Harmonizing to Sewall, It is most certain that all Men, as they are the Sons of Adam, are Coheirs ; and have equal Right unto Liberty, and all other outward Comfortss of Life ( Sewall, 324 ) . So Sewall clearly believes that Africans should non be enslaved. He offers farther grounds when he writes, It is Discernible that the Israelites were purely forbidden the purchasing, or selling one another for Slaves ( Sewall, 326 ) . As the Israelites were all brothers in God s eyes, and Psal. 115. 16 offers clear grounds of the brotherhood of all work forces, the buyers of slaves of the New World are clearly go againsting God s jurisprudence by purchasing their ain brothers harmonizing to Sewall ( Sewall, 324 ) .
Christianizing slaves, harmonizing to Sewall, neither makes ownership of them legal nor improves the Providence of their Masterss. Sewall would hold responded by observing Mather s turning away of the legality of bondage. I would reason that Mather is the 1 who Dulcifies, and Mollifies, and Moderates the issue of scriptural justification by declining to reply Sewall s specific statements against bondage in his piece. Remember that Ames writes bondage with the maestro as agent in general, thwarts the generall Canon, What you would hold work forces make unto you, even so make unto them: Matth. 17.12. 3.3 ( Sewall, 327 ) . In Sewall s sentiment, by go againsting the Golden Rule, slave proprietors clearly place themselves in a unstable place.
Mather, Cotton. The Negro Christianized. The Literatures of Colonial America. Ed. Susan Castillo and Ivy Schweitzer. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. 333-37.
Sewall, Samuel. The Selling of Joseph. The Literatures of Colonial America. Ed. Susan Castillo and Ivy Schweitzer. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2001. 323-27.