Roman History Essay, Research Paper
Italy is a peninsula stick outing out into the Medditerranean sea West of Greece. Italy
has hapless mineral resources and really few utile seaports, nevertheless it is wealty in both
fertile land and precipitation. Three & # 8211 ; quarters of the peninsula is covered in foothills
and mountains. The Alps, a mountian scope to the North of Italy, cut off the peninsulas
merely land connexion, which resulted, in the times of Ancient Rome, in the people
trading amonst themselves.
The Early People of Rome
The Etruscans were cryptic people who settled on the Italian Peninsula
someplace between 900 and 800 BC. No 1 is truly certain about their beginning,
nevertheless archeologists suspect that they came from the eastern Medditerannean. The
Etruscans ruled in north-eastern Italy, between the Appentine mountian scope and the
Tyrrhenian Sea. Their civilisation streched from the Arno River in the North to the Tiber
River which is more towards the centre of the Italian Peninsula. Te Tiber River is where
the Roman Empire would sit old ages subsequently.
The Etruscans lived in independent city states. In the earliest times, these
city states were ruled by a monarchy, but were subsequently ruled by oligarchies that governed
through a coucil and elected functionaries. The Etruscans were mostly agricultural people,
nevertheless they besides had a strong miliatary, which they used to rule Te environing
societies. These dominated populations were forced by the Etruscans to make their
ricultural labour, which left clip for the Etruscans to give to commerce and industry.
They were sophisticated people, with and alphebet based on the Grecian
alphabet, an original manner in sculpture and picture, a faith based on homos like
Gods, and a complicated set of rites which they performed yearly.
While the Etruscans were concentrating on constructing their power over all of Italy
and prosecuting in commercialism, a metropolis to their south began to the grow. This metropolis seemed to
immitate the Etruscans in many ways. This new land was the Roman Kingdom.
The Rise of the Roman Empire
The Tiber River is critical for the trade of cardinal Italty. Along the Bankss of the Tiber
River lies seven hills. The Palatine, the most importnat of all these hills, is where
Roman civilization was founded in 753 BC.
Around 620 BC, the Etruscans gained control of Rome. At this clip Rome
developed into a monarchy. Some early male monarchs of Rome were Priscus, Tullius, and
Superbus. Under the regulation of the Tarquins, a affluent Etruscan household, the Roman
learned how to construct their houses utilizing brick and tile. They besides derained the marshy
Lowlandss which surrounded Rome and layed out streets, created a metropolis square, and
built temples. All of these things made Rome go one of the wealthiest metropoliss in
In 1534, Superbus, better known as Tarquin the Proud, came to the throne to
regulation over Rome. Due to his tyranncy, the enraged Romans threw the Targuins out of
Rome and the high households of Rome formed and oligarchic democracy.
During this clip in Pome, there were two societal groups. The patricians were
members of the affluent blue category in Rome, nevertheless patricians weren? t a really
big part of Rome? s inhabitiants. A big bulk of Rome? s people were plebian
and these people were nonarictocratic. Most plebeans were merchandisers, tradesmans,
husbandmans, and labourers. As Roman citizens, both categories had the right to vote, had to
wage revenue enhancements, and both had to function in the armed forces. However, plebeians could non keep a
Rome? s authorities was organized, by the patricians, into two subdivisions,
exectuive and legislative. The legislative subdivision consisted of an Assembly of Centuries
and the Senate. The Senate was a group dwelling of 300 patricians who served for
life. The Senate over ruled the Assembly of the Centuries. They besides advised the
consuls of the executive subdivision, peoposed Torahs, and over saw route building, the
edifice of temples, and the armed forces. The Assembly of the Centuries elected the
functionaries of the exectutive subdivision. The executive subdivision was headed by two consuls,
who were elected for annual footings. These consuls would work together to supervise
the othr exectutive officals, such as Judgess, censors, revenue enhancement keepers, and the keepers of
population records. During times of crisis, the Romans would name a dictator who
ruled over all of the executive functionaries, even the consuls. However, these dictators
would merely function for a short sum of clip when they were needed.
In 494 BC, the plebeians became angry about their deficiency of power in the democracy.
Many of them refused to function in the miliatary unless thier demands for alteration was
met by the patricians. In 1451 BC, the patricians granted the plebians their want.
Engraved on 12 bronzy tablets, was the written jurisprudence of codification for Rome which ensured
that all calsses would be treated as peers. These 12 tabular arraies became known as The
Twelve Tablets, and they became the footing of all future Roman jurisprudence.
The household was really of import in Roman society. Roman households were really
big, dwelling of all single kids, married boies and their households, all
dependent relations, and the family slaves. The male parent of the household was in charge
of everything. He controlled belongings, performed spiritual ceremonials, and supervised
his boy? s instructions. He besides had the right to sell any of the members of his household to
bondage, or even kill them. Roman adult females had few legal rights. The ran the usual house
keep job that most adult females do, such as the selling and supervising their
families. However, some Roman adult females did aquire belongings and some wealty
adult females had slaves to work in their houses. The kids of the faimlies were tought by
their parents to read and compose. The male parents taught their boies how to farm and thrive,
while the female parents of the households taught their girls how to over see the family.
Early Roman worshiped liquors of nature. These liquors were thought of as Gods
and goddesses. The Romans had rites which they would execute for thier divinities. The
Romans besides believed in luck stating. They would frequently travel to forecasters, better
known as luck Tellers, to state them of what was to come in the hereafter. Families ALSs
oprivately worshipped particular liquors of their ain from the Roman faith.
Military Sucess in Rome
Rome? s potency as a major power increased as Celt and Etrucian invasions
were fought off in the 390? s BC. Rome had a major sucess in 396 BC when Veii, an
Etrucian metropolis near to Rome, was won over after a long conflict. It was going obvious
that Rome was an enlargement in power and this angered many of Rome? s Latin Alliess.
In 264 BC, Carthage threatened to prehend the Straight of Messina. So, the
Romans sent a force to procure the waterway. When they did, a war began. The
Romans? army conquered most of the settlements of Carthage in Sisily. However, the
Carthaginians had an advantage when it came to naval conflicts and this gave Carthage
an advantage. The Romans built a larger fleet and in a conflict off of the African seashore,
the Romans pulled a surprise onslaught on Carthage by get oning their boats and battle
hangd to manus combat. This rocedthe Cathaginians into a retreat and in 241 BC, the
Carthaginians surrendered and agreed to pay the Romans for the dmages they had
caused. They ne’er gained bakc the sea or the metropoliss in Sicily that they had lost.
In 221 BC, a immature solider named Hannibal became general of the Cataginian
ground forces in Spain. In 219 BC, Hannibal took over one of Rome? s allied metropoliss in Spain.
Then, he decided to take war into Italy. He formed a immense ground forces, dwelling of 40,000
work forces and 40 elephants. He palnned to take his soliders over the Alps to Italy. However,
before they reached Italy, half of his soliders were killed by famishment, illness, the
cold, and onslaughts by the mountain people. Although they were outnumbered, Hannibals
military personnels defeated all of the Roman ground forcess that were sent against them. In 216 BC,
Hannibal about defeated the Romans in conflict. However, the Romans found
volenteers who were willing to assist the licking Hannibal and shortly, Scipio, the Roman
general, and his forces defeated Hannibal. This triumph force the Carthaginians to give
up most of thier war vessels, all of their land in Spain, and they had to pay for amendss
In 146, the Romans decided to wholly make away with Carthage and it? s
people. So, the Romans burned Carthage, sold it? s people to slavery, and sowed salt
into their dirts so that no harvests would turn. This gave Rome complete regulation over the
After suppressing all, Rome found that its actuating intent was now gone and
suffered legion internal troubles. Rome? s conquerings had brought 1000s of
prisoners and captives of war to Rome to work as slaves, hence slave labour was
cheap. Soon, slave labour began to replace paid labour and due to a deficiency of emplyment,
little husbandman and rural workers poured into the metropoliss of Rome seeking occupations. Jobs, of
class weren? T available, hence a new category formed in the metropoliss of Rome, the urban,
landless hapless. Revolts began to interrupt out amonst the slaves, nevertheless these were
ne’er sucessful. As force in Rome increased many people tried to suggest reforms
which would contract the societal spread in Rome. In 133 BC, Graccus Brotehrs led a popular
motion for a land reform, syaing that they should take the land of the rich and give
some of it to the hapless. However, the Roman Senate opposed both brother? s reforms
and they were both killed combat for thier cause.
Gaius Marius, a strong general in Rome, did alot to transferpower to the Roman
ground forces during those times. Then, and adult male named Sulla, drove Marius out of power and
he appointed himself dictator.
In 59 BC, the First Triumvirate, dwelling of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and
Pompey came to power when Caesar was elected consul. Soon, Caesar was appointed
general of the Roman ground forces. Caesar was a smart adult male and he knew how to lift to power
rapidly in Rome, through the military. Caesar waged a series of superb military
campains and he added a big sum of district to the Roman Empire in Belgium,
Frnace, and even Southern Great Britian. When he had finished his conquerings,
nevertheless, the Triumvirate had dissolved. Crassus had died in conflict, and Pompey had
turned against Caesar and had besides turned the Senate against him every bit good. The Senate
declared Caesar an anemy of the province and they demandedthat he had over his
generalship at one time. Caesar, nevertheless, had other programs. His military personnels were really loyal to
him, so in 49 BC, Caesar waged a Civil war against Pompey. In 48 BC, Caesar won the
war and Pompey was out of the image. In 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome and had
the SEnate appoint him dicator for 10 old ages. Two old ages subsequently he was appointeddictator
for life, and he was above nad beyond all Torahs of Rome. HOwever, shortly after Caesar
appointed himself dictator for life, his regulation began to look like a monarchy, which was
against the Roman Republican tradition. In 44 BC, on March 15, a group of
conspiritors, led by Cassius Longinus and Marcus Brutus, assasinated Caesar as he
entered the Senate in his usual mannor.
After Caesar? s decease, his grand-nephew, Octavion joined with Marc Anthony and
Marcus Lepidus, two of Caesar? s authorities officers. In 42 BC, the 2nd triunvirate
defeated Caesar? s asassins. Then, these three generals divided the ROman Emipre
into three equal parts, one subdivision for each of them to govern. Soon, the 2nd triunvirate
began to fall apart, jsut as the frist one did. Octavian forced Lepidus into retirement,
and shortly after when Anthony married Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, Octavion
convinced the Romans that Anthony intended to govern them wi
th his foreign queen.
Octavion so declared war on Anthony in Romes name. A twelvemonth subsequently, Anothony and
Cleopatra kill themselves in Egypt to get away Octavious. With Anthony dead, Octavion
became swayer of Rome. This would tag the beginning of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Empire
Under the Roman Republic, military generals had taken power off from
elected functionaries. This made Octavion believe taht Rome needed a really strong leader.
The Senate agreed with him and in 27 BC, they appointed him consul, tribune, and
commanding officer in head for life. He so changed his name to Augustus.
With the coming of the Roman Empire, nil truly changed in Roman
freedom and equality. Augustus, nevertheless, was on a mission to reconstruct order to Rome
and to even out equality in the imperium. Augusus is in many manner considered to be
Rome? s greatest leader. Augustus radically reformed the authorities to control
corruptness. He besides extended Roman citizen ship to all Italians. He resettled his soliders
onto farming area, to guarantee that adequate harvests would be grown to feed the Roman people
in times of crisis. He changed the armed forces from being a volenteer ground forces to a standing
professional ground forces ; Rome and it? s states became a constabulary province. For the first clip,
Rome bagan to construct it? s imperium, and the states settled down into peace and
prosparity. On top of all of these great accomplishments, Augustus did even more for
Rome. He began a huge undertaking of edifice and backing of the humanistic disciplines, and Roman
civilization florished into a roar of creativeness which would do this clip period stand out
as the greatest cultural period in the history of Rome. The age of Augustus is known as
the Golden Age of Roman Literature, because during this clip some of the greaest
poets of Rome flourished. Ausutus besides patronised art and sculpture with the same
passion that he patronised literature. He began tremendous undertakings edifice temples,
such as the Temple of Apollo, and the Roman Forum.
When Augustus died in 14 AD, Tiberius & # 8211 ; Augustus? chosen inheritor & # 8211 ; took the
throne. However, he spoiled his regulation by impeaching many guiltless people of lese majesty
against him and he withdrew himself from office. Caligula was murdered in 41 AD and
the emperor? s escorts forced the Senate to accept another emperor, Claudius. He
did much to do the office of emperor solid. Claudius besides won many triumphs in
Britain in the twelvemonth 43 AD.
It is believed that Claudius? married woman Agrippina poisoned him to let her boy Nero to
travel up to the thrown. Once emperor, Nero had his female parent killed, persecuted
Christains, and perchance arranged the combustion of Rome which occurred in 64 AD. He
built a great castle in the centre of Rome? s debris with a elephantine stature of himself inside.
When Spain revolted against him, Nero committed suicide. This ended the Augustus
reign and Sulpicius Galba, governor of Spain, took office.
Rome was in changeless Civil War in 68 AD as the throne changed custodies four
times. In 70 AD the emperor Titus captured Jerusalem. His brother Domitian followed
him. After the decease of Nerva in 97, Trajan, Hadrian, the Antonine emperors, and the
Severan emperors reigned in a clip of peace. Many edifices and statues were built in
Northern Africa during this clip. The Colosseum and the Pantheon were besides built in
Rome. The emperors during this clip are known as the Good Emperors. They include
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. The imperium came to the
tallness of its economic prosperity during this clip.
The Roman Empire had grown to between 70 and 100 million citizens by the
clip Augustus had come to power in 27 B.C. It is hard to govern so many people
without an effectivly run authorities. Changes had to be made.
Augustus chose professional governors instead than allowing the Senate appoint
inexperient proconsuls every twelvemonth. In Judea he left local male monarchs in charge. He besides
ordered new roads built so that he could remain in touch with all parts of the imperium. He
besides visited the countries frequently. Augustus dignified his ain place by functioning as pontifex
maximus, main priest of Rome. This made himself and each emperor to come became
caput of a national, consolidative faith.
As the imperium grew, the Romans felt they needed a new sort of jurisprudence that would
apply to foreigners. They created the jus gentium, or jurisprudence that dealt with foreigners,
as opposed to the jus civile, or citizen jurisprudence. By the early 200? s A.D. emperors had given
citizenship to the peoples of so many nearby states that all free males in the imperium
had been made full citizens of Rome, therefore doing the two Torahs one.
Romans normally emphasize the authorization of the province over the person. They
besides gave people definite legal rights, one of which was that an accused individual should
be considered guiltless until proved guilty. This system, foremost used by the Romans, is
the foundation for the legal systems of many Western states.
Augustus and subsequently emperors kept the professional ground forces. When peace prevailed
for a long period of clip, Augustus reduced the figure of hosts and built up the
contending force with military personnels recruited from the provincial peoples. There were merely about
300,000 military personnels, which was non plenty to support a boundary line with a length of 4,000 stat mis.
Because of this, by 160 A.D. invasions by peoples outside the imperium had become a
job to be delt with every twenty-four hours.
Roman Peace was dominate from 31 B.C. to A.D. 180. Great prosperity and
stableness boosted trade and raised the criterion of life for most citizens of the Empire.
To state that things were really good was non an understatement. Humanistic disciplines such as Italian
clayware, woven fabric, blown glass and jewellery went on sale to all people. Luxury points
like silk and spices from Southeast Asia was avaliable.. But with the prosperity came
many alterations in the life styles of mundane citizens. The household became less important
than it had been in the yesteryear. Romans had fewer kids and divorced and remarried
frequently. In a nutshell, society became less stable.
With these alterations came a form of life & # 8230 ; affluent people frequently held public
office, owned big farms, and by and large had more influence over things. They besides
lived more comfortably in big places and farms. THe in-between category grew.
Shopkeepers and craftsmans grew in figure, but most Roman citizens remained hapless,
life in moth-eaten flat edifices that frequently fell or burned down. But, depsite these
conditions, the hapless did non revolt against the authorities because it gave them free
staff of life and amusement. It was during this clip that chariot races became really
popular in Rome. It seemed that the Romans were concentrated on holding a good clip
than really working on breaking themselves.
The Appian Way, the first major Roman route, was built in the 300? s B.C. It
connected Rome and southeasterly Italy. Many roads were built during this clip to associate
Rome with the states. This helped unify the imperium.
Aqueducts, unreal channels for transporting H2O, were constructed by Roman
applied scientists. This was a elephantine breakrthrough toward modern H2O direction.
Equally far as instruction goes in the Roman EMpire, affluent male childs and misss received
private lessons at place. The affluent immature work forces went on to analyze at academies where
former Greek slaves frequently taught. They learned geometry, uranology, doctrine and
oratory. Girls continued to analyze at place, non in academies, and were merely every bit educated
as the male childs. Even childs in the lower categories had some instruction. They learned the
basic reading, composing and arithmetic accomplishments needed to carry on concern.
Latin was the linguistic communication of the Roman Empire. I had a vocabulary far smaller
than that of Greek or modern English. Many words ment the same thing. Latin signifiers
the footing of many Romantic linguistic communications such as Italian, Gallic, Spanish, and
Lusitanian. It besides is the root for half of all ENglish words.
Rome and Christianity
Early Romans worshiped nature liquors. Soon these liquors turned to divinities.
Subsequently, much of the Greek faith was taken on by the Romans. Deities still remained
an of import portion of their spiritual belief. Roman citizens were expected to honour the
emperor as Rome? s head priest. But they were besides allowed to idolize freely so many
Christian religion was one of those faiths. It sprang up in the eastern
Mediterranean among the Judaic people. At first it was thought to be merely a religious order, or
group, within Judaism. But as Christains converted non-Jewish followings, the religion
grew beyond its Judaic roots and became a new faith.
Those practising the new Christain faith in Judea were allowed to idolize as
they wished, but were treated severely by the Roman EMpire. Christains believed that
their God would present them from Roman regulation so they rebelled against the Roman
ground forces in Jerusalem and overpowered them in A.D. 66. Another unsuccessful rebellion
followed. This caused the Romans to coerce the Jews out of Jeruselum, doing them to
spread and live in other parts of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
Before the rebellions, a adult male from Nazareth named Jesus brought his message
of love and forgivness to the people of Galilee and Judea. THe adherents that survived
after Jesus was put to decease as a political Rebel rapidly dispersed Christianity among
gentiles. It is believed that one of those deciples, Peter, really established the first
Christain church in Rome. But Christains were persecuted. THe Romans were afraid
that Christain instructions rejected their divinities. Many Christains were killed during this
clip. Romans often threw Christain sufferer into the bowls to be killed by wild
animate beings in forepart of heartening crowds. THis was a popular amusement for Romans
during this clip.
THe Roman general Constantine did much to distribute CHristainity among the
Romans. He claimed that he had a vision in which the symbol of the cross had great
power to take him to triumph in conflict. He ordered his soldiers to paint the Christain
symbol of the cross on their shields. WHen he won, he called it a triumph for the
He became emperor of Rome in A.D. 312. He began protecting Christainity and
those who practiced it. He even ordered churches to be built in Rome and Jerusalem.
During this clip missional work flurished with the support of the authorities. Many
churches were built and Christianity increased its influence in the Roman universe. In
A.D. 392 the Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official faith of the Roman
Empire. He banned the old Hellenistic and Roman faiths.
Early on on Christians realized that in order to thrive they had to be organized.
THey wrote down their beliefs clearly in order to avoid differences of sentiment that might
divide the church. Important work forces of faith attempted to explicate Christian beliefs.
THey were known as Church Fathers. Augustine, a bookman born in North Africa in A.D.
354, was one of the most well-thought-of of the spiritual bookmans. He became a taking
church functionary in North Africa. He wrote many influential letters, verse forms and discourses.
As the Christian church grew it began to form itself into a hierarchy. It? s
degrees of authorization was built with each degree being more powerful than the one below it.
Local assemblages, known as parishes, were led by priests. Several parishes got
together to organize diocese, each overseen by a bishop. THese bishops interpreted
Christian beliefs for the people. Bishops from the major metropoliss such as Rome were
known as patriarchs. These work forces were really powerful, finding what beliefs were
true and what were fals philosophy. In the 400s A.D. the bishop of Rome began to believe
he was more powerful than the other bishops & # 8230 ; that he should hold more say in the
church? s personal businesss. Today the bishop of Rome is known the Pope.