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The intent of the survey is to gauge the familial fluctuation and species distinction harmonizing to geographical differences of Hygrophila pogonocalyx by utilizing RAPD ( random amplified polymorphous DNA ) fingerprinting, which is a PCR-based fingerprinting method. With the survey of the workss familial fluctuations and phylogeography, we can acquire a better position on the workss evolutionary history and can happen solutions to protect the endangered species.

H. pogonocalyx is an aquatic works which is badly threatened due to human activities. In Taiwan, there are four populations staying separated by geographical differences which is the mountain ridge. As a consequence, familial fluctuation between the populations is important. From the above observations, population distinction is influenced by phylogeography, and therefore there are familial impetuss among the works populations. Besides from geographical differences, pollinators such as insects will besides act upon the familial variableness of a population. This is due to the fact that some insects will merely be localized at a specific country. In add-on, some seeds dispersion of workss will besides limited to a certain country.

From the above observation, RAPD analysis can be used to analyze the differences and similarities between the populations of H. pogonocalyx. RAPD is a polymerase concatenation reaction ( PCR ) -based method which was used to magnify H. pogonocalyx DNA. By utilizing the RAPD fingerprinting, we can find that there is familial diverseness nowadays as it functions as a familial marker to observe familial fluctuations among strains of H. pogonocalyx.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

H. pogonocalyx was collected from northeasterly and western Taiwan. As there are merely limited populations available, merely 10 % is collected from each population and this will do certain that the same person is non collected twice. The samples collected must be placed in a cool country and is cultured. Before continuing to the grinding procedure, the foliages of immature shoots are washed and the grinded foliage tissue pulverization was placed in liquid N to interrupt down cell wall stuff and let entree to DNA while harmful cellular enzymes and chemicals remain inactivated. The genomic Deoxyribonucleic acid of the works was extracted by utilizing the works DNA extraction method. The Deoxyribonucleic acid was resuspended in CTAB buffer. To sublimate the Deoxyribonucleic acid, centrifugation was used to take indissoluble particulates and other stuffs were separated by blending with trichloromethane and centrifuged. The supernatant was transferred and was centrifuged once more and the pellet was washed by ethyl alcohol to take polluting salts. The pellet was so resuspended in TE buffer. The genomic Deoxyribonucleic acid extracted was run on agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide and observed under UV visible radiation.

The genomic Deoxyribonucleic acid was amplified utilizing PCR method. The amplified merchandises were run once more in gel cataphoresis, stained with ethidium bromide and photographed.

AMOVA-PREP was used to analyze the information between the populations studied. With AMOVA, we can gauge the molecular discrepancy of the populations. The molecular discrepancy was estimated in braces.

From the RAPD informations, the population & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s distance matrix can be obtained. The distance matrix was used to pull a UPGMA dendrogram utilizing package and the genic fluctuation was estimated by bootstrapping.

A expression was used to cipher the similarity index and certain package analyzes the co-ordinate utilizing the similarity index. The first three co-ordinates was drawn in 3-dimensional graph and the familial relationship of the populations can be read from the graph.

Consequence

From RAPD fingerprinting, the sets produced have similarities among the populations. The molecular discrepancy besides shows that it is besides a factor that can be used to infer that there are differences among the population studied with similar and different geographical country. Besides that, the partner offing comparing of molecular discrepancy besides shows that there are differences between the populations.

The UPGMA dendrogram was analyzed and it shows that there are two geographically different groups. By trying two of the population with same geographical part, the bootstrap value is 100 % , corroborating the similarities of population between same geographical countries. Furthermore, there is no grounds shown that subpopulation construction is present.

The first three co-ordinate of the population used to pull the 3-dimensional graph was found to be consistent with the UPGMA dendrogram. From this, we can reason that there are two geographically different populations nowadays.

Discussion

The AMOVA analysis shows that familial fluctuation between populations of different geographical country is high comparison to from the same geographical part. When all of the populations were analyzed regardless of geographical country, the familial differences among populations are besides high. From the information, the differences may be caused by insect pollenation. Plants which adopt wind dispersion were found that it caused familial differences merely within the population.

As the insect pollinators were restricted to merely a certain country, the cistron flow between populations was non so important. From this observation, it shows that the familial fluctuation is associated with geographical country.

The UPGMA dendrogram and co-ordinate analysis besides shows that there are differences among population from different geographical country. Due to the fact that different familial fluctuation was present between populations of different geographical country, the venue of the population have attained their monophyly and this will caused familial impetus. Natural choice nowadays at a peculiar country will besides act upon the cistron flow of the population. This phenomenon of familial fluctuation shows that the population may hold evolved to exhibit the similar phenotypic characteristics but extremely differentiated familial composing.

Although H. pogonocalyx is an endangered species, but there are some genetically variate population nowadays. Sexual reproduction is responsible for the familial fluctuation as from the survey carried out ; the offspring produced from sexual reproduction would hold a higher life ability than the selfing 1s. Bodily mutant is besides responsible for this familial fluctuation. Human activities will do the home ground of the workss to be destroyed and familial fluctuation would be lost. This will do the population to extinct as times passed as they will lose their ability to accommodate to harsh status. So, to protect the workss from extinction and avoid familial loss, preservation must be done to guarantee that the workss can populate and turn better in their home grounds.

Decision

From the RAPD fingerprinting, familial fluctuation between the populations of H. pogonocalyx was still maintained although they are endangered species. Bodily mutant, insect pollenation and selfing can besides lend to the familial differences but inbreeding between the workss will take down the familial differences. From the molecular discrepancy informations and UPGMA dendrogram, the population from different geographical country was shown to be separated genetically. As they are different genetically, they must be managed with different methods.

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