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The research squad of Bogers et Al ( 2003 ) has conducted a research entitled “Using a Correction Factor to Correct for Overreporting in a Food Frequency Questionnaire Does Not Better Biomarker-Assessed Validity of Estimates for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption” . The undermentioned subdivision presents the principle for the survey. methodological analysis. consequences. and decision to sum up the diary article. Rationale The chief push of the survey is to be able to calculate for rectification factors so as to rectify the overreporting of nutrient and veggie ( FV ) ingestion.

This was carried out through the deployment of FV ingestion via questionnaire. In a nutshell. the research has compared the capacity to rank people on the footing of their FV ingestion replies ( as reported through the points in the questionnaire ) to single inquiries and besides of rectified and uncorrected projections of nutrient and veggies. Methodology The respondents of the survey consisted of 161 healthy adult females in their in-between age who were asked to carry through the FV instrument about their FV ingestion in the past month and from whom one fasting blood sample was collected.

For the calculation of the rectification factors. “the reported frequence on a drumhead inquiry divided by the summed frequences of all points in the class. FV ingestion has been validated through the usage of carotenoids as biomarkers. Consequences There were statistically important Spearman’s correlativity coefficients that were computed for both nutrient and vegetable ingestion and biomarkers present. The single drumhead projections of cooked. natural and entire vegetable ingestion registered stronger relationships with biomarkers than with overall ( i. e. amount ) projections.

Furthermore. there was no such differentiation in the strength of correlativity for fruits. To prove the public-service corporation of the rectification factor. it was used for carrot and chou ingestion and it was found that the strength of relationship with biomarkers decreased upon application ( for single carrot ingestion and entire chou ingestion vs. biomarkers ) . There was no such alteration noted upon application of the factor to the followers: Brussels sprouts. Brassica oleracea italica. cauli flower. and citrous fruit.

Decision Bogers et Al ( 2003 ) put Forth that the usage of drumhead inquiries are equal for ranking respondents’ FV ingestion. In add-on. it has been suggested that the rectification for overreporting of single fruits and veggies may non be applaudable when ranking respondents on their ingestion of each of these. Article 2: Drumhead The 2nd article was a research carried out by Kipnis et Al ( 2003 ) entitled “Structure of Dietary Measurement Error: Consequences of the OPEN Biomarker Study” .

The undermentioned subdivision explains the principle of the survey. its methodological analysis. consequences. and decision. Rationale The chief push of the survey was to look into the effectivity of multiple-day nutrient records or 24-hour dietetic callbacks ( 24HRs ) as respects its proneness to measurement mistake. These instruments are conventionally utilised for the standardization of Food Frequency Questionnaires ( FFQs ) . Pragmatically. they are used to formalize the results of epidemiological researches on nutrition.

If there is disposed accommodation. “errors in the adoptive mention instrument [ will ] be independent of those in the FFQ and true intake” . Method Kipnis et Al ( 2003 ) have used informations collected from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition ( OPEN ) research which has been carried out from September 1999 to March 2000. Doubly labeled H2O and urinary N have been used as biomarkers. Datas were collected from 484 healthy participants from Maryland. Consequences

The results of the survey indicate that the FFQ leads to significant lessening in the jutting disease hazard for protein and energy ingestion. For case. a comparative hazard of 2 is presented by the FFQ merely every bit 1. 1 or even lower. The consequences suggest that the usage of the 24HR as a benchmark tool may soberly diminish the value of energy-adjusted protein. Conclusion Kipnis et Al ( 2003 ) conclude that the results of all epidemiologic research which have used this instrument for mensurating the relationships of diet and disease demand to be earnestly reviewed.

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