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Computers at work, school and home Introduction Computer is an electronic, digital device which is operated under given instructions stored in its own memory. Computers are very useful to us. They are used almost everywhere even at work, school and home by people to complete certain tasks or work. There are many types of computers such as desktop computers, pocket PC, and even smartphones. Computer consists of two components. They are hardware and software.

The hardware are the parts of computer itself including the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and related microchips and micro-circuitry, keyboards, monitors, case and drives (hard, CD, DVD, floppy, optical, tape, etc… ). Other extra parts called peripheral components or devices include mouse, printers, modems, scanners, digital cameras and cards (sound, colour, video) etc… Together they are often referred to as a personal computer. The software is the information that the computer uses to get the job done. Software needs to be accessed before it can be used.

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There are many terms used for process of accessing software including running, executing, starting up, opening, and others. Computer programs allow users to complete tasks. A program can also be referred to as an application and the two words are used interchangeably. A) How computers change the way people work in factories, office, homes and a variety of industries Back in the old times, a few people are needed to work on a job but now it only takes 1 person and the help of a computer to get the job done which also saves time and manpower.

This is because computers used in factories saves labour by doing jobs which need to be done by a few or more people. Next, the way people used to work in offices and homes back before the computer was invented is by typing documents using a typewriter or writing letters. Nowadays, computers are like a replacement for typewriters. This is because they can be used to type documents and letters. This not only saves time but also standardise the format of letters and other documents. Besides that, the computers can store files and data.

So people at factories, offices, homes and industries do not have to keep lots of filing cabinets to store these files. This helps to save space. Other than that, computers are used to control machines in factories and industries nowadays. This helps in the production of items to be standardised and to maintain the quality of the item. B) Several ways which computers have changed the quality of jobs, both positively and negatively Since the invention of the first computer, the computer has helped us to complete tasks.

It has changed our lives. If we were to live without computers in the world, it would be very much difficult compared to the way we live right now. Computers have high accuracy and high precision. They can calculate mathematical equations in just a few seconds accurately. This can minimize miscalculations. Besides that, computers have programmes which help in drawing architecture plans, solving equations for engineers and presenting slide shows. This helps many different types of people with different occupations to complete their job.

These programmes also enhance the quality of jobs of different users. Other than that, computers also complete jobs neatly. For instance, when we want to type a report we can just type it out in Microsoft Word as it is more neat and tidy compared to some of our handwritings which are hard to read. Furthermore, computers can be used to surf the Internet to find more information. With that, quality of researches will keep improving. On the other hand, a computer does not know how to differentiate a person or user. To the computer, everybody is the same person to it.

So if a person tries to create a virus or hack its file system, it will follow the instructions given. This can reduce the quality of job. C) How our society will adjust as more and more jobs automated Nowadays, many jobs are automated. They no longer need man power. They use computer for the job. That is one of the disadvantages of computers. Because of this, many people will lose their job because they have been replaced by computers. Society can adjust themselves by creating a new job to replace the ones that has been automated.

By creating a new job to replace the ones that has been automated, society can adjust themselves to the world that is growing in technology. Human mind is greater than computers’. Without human, computers wouldn’t exist because the computer is a man-made machine. D) Information age places demand on our education system The Information Age, also commonly known as the Computer Age or Information Era, is an idea that the current age will be characterized by the ability of individuals to transfer information freely, and to have instant access to knowledge that would have been difficult or impossible to find previously.

The idea is linked to the concept of a Digital Age or Digital Revolution, and carries the ramifications of a shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on the manipulation of information. Since the invention of social media in the 2000s, the Information Age has evolved into the Attention Age according to some publications. Nowadays information age places demand on our education system. This is because students can gain instant access to knowledge that would have been difficult to find previously.

Students also can transfer information freely. Today, there are several ways that computers are used in classrooms. One example is computer is used to present powerpoint slides via connecting to the projecter. Secondly, computers are used to learn in the classroom via video conferencing. The United States of America use video conferencing in classroom to begin lesson. Besides that, students can also organize their work in the classroom by using computer and they can search information in the internet while in the classroom.

E) THE ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATION OF COMPUTERS AS INSTRUCTIONAL TOOLS The computer is an high technology electronic device. It is also very useful as a instructional tool. However, it has advantages and also limitation in certain point of view. There are many advantages of this electronic device. It is a self – directing operating system. This means that the user provides all instructions which also known as input to the computer at the start and then it will proceeds without any human intervention and produces the output.

Furthermore, it also can saves and retrieves information. This means that it can store voluminous data and gives out the same data when needed. Moreover, it also has a capability to store data through the secondary storage devices such as diskettes, CD-ROM disks (read only memory), flash cards, magnetic tapes and many more. Besides that, it also able to computes complex formulas and generates accurate data as the output. It can process complex calculation and procedure with high speed and fast which takes a long time to solve manually.

It also capable of handling and processing large calculation at single time. In addition, It also can perform logical operation within a short period of time. It is an efficient tool in analyzing and solving problems especially which involves decision making. So, it is very necessary tool to solve this kind of problems which always we faced in our daily life. With the correct data and instructions from the user, it can manipulate the provided data logically with the required concept. In addition, It also able to communicate with the user and other machines.

It can display error messages on the screen about the user’s instructions or data thereby avoiding incorrect output or results. Then, it also can save any files whether long or short file for a long period of time. Furthermore, in the computer there is a Professional Suite which is known as Microsoft Office. This suite offers Word, Excel, Access and Powerpoint. The Word is use to handle word processing which can make many document such as report letter, greeting card, and many more. The Excel is use to control on spreadsheets which also can make many material like balance sheet and so on.

The Access is use to handle on database manipulation while the PowerPoint is use to produce slides for presentations. So, the computer has many useful function in our daily life and it is needed for everyone. The computer has immerse benefit but it is a man made machine. So, after all it definitely has it’s own limitations. It can correct erroneous input data but if the user mistakenly given incorrect data or instructions, it does not have the ability to correct it by itself. Thus, the computer term GIGO or Garbage In, Garbage Out.

In other words, computer fed wrong data will produce wrong information. Other than that, it can only do what it is instructed or programmed to do. It excutes and follows only the set of instruction that has been entered by the user. Furthermore, it also unable to generate any information on it’s own. Generally, a computer cannot generate information without any correct data or sets of instructions entered by the user. The computer is also subject to occasional breakdown. Like any machine, a computer malfunctions due to a worn out storage devices and other components or power fluctuations.

Besides that, It does not have any feeling and it cannot fix any external components by itself. The computer also unable to turns on itself or programming itself. In addition, it can’t think anything on itself because it does not have brain to think. So, in other way, it definitely cannot replace a human brain which is able to process anything quickly by manually. Then, it only works on the stored procedures and cannot use it’s own knowledge to get more idea on certain point. Not all complex calculation can be solved through the computers.

Furthermore, the computer has limited capacity while human brain has unlimited capacity if we know how to use it. So, generally, we can conclude that we cannot depends on computers at all time. F) The role of computers in our home and leisure activities in the next decade Over the next decade, the evolution of computing and the Internet will produce faster, increasingly intelligent devices. More of our possessions will contain sensors and computers that log our activities, building digital dossiers that augment our memories, help us make decisions and tame information overload.

Such ideas may sound futuristic and excessive today, and technological predictions are notoriously off-base. Short-term forecasts tend to assume too much change, and long-term forecasts underestimate the possibility of sudden, major shifts. Computer will have more roles in our home activities in the next decade such as cooking. In the next decade, maybe computer will be use to turn on the stove automatically when starting to cook. Other activities are home entertainment. Home entertainment such as video games and television.

Computers play major role in these activities in the next decade. Computers also play a role in our leisure activities in the next decade. Such as outdoor activities. Computer will play a role in these activities by providing better ways to do these activities. SUMMARY Computer is having a profound influence on the way we live and work, and it is likely to challenge many of our beliefs, assumptions, and traditions. The modern, automated factory uses computers at every level of operation.

Computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, robots, automated assembly lines, and automated warehouses all combine to produce factories that need very few labourer’s. The biggest problem of automation may be the elimination of jobs. Automation will almost certainly produce unemployment and pain for millions of people unless society is able to provide them with the education they’ll need to take the new jobs created by technology. Our educational system was developed a century ago to train workers for lifelong jobs.

In the information age, when students can expect to change jobs several times, we need schools that teach technological familiarity, literacy, mathematics, culture, communication, problem solving, and, most important, the ability to learn and adapt to an ever-changing world. Our educational system was developed a century ago to train workers for lifelong jobs. In the information age, when students can expect to change jobs several times, we need schools that teach technological familiarity, literacy, mathematics, culture, communication, problem solving, and, most important, the ability to learn and adapt to an ever-changing world.

With provided education the society will be able to adjust as more and more jobs are automated. Anyway, studies of computers in classrooms already stared to teach important knowledge to prepare the students. The future will be a big place, thanks to computers. Clearly, computer technology can have a positive educational impact, but computers alone can’t guarantee improvement. Research, planning, teacher training, community involvement, and classroom restructuring should accompany new technology.

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