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Reclamation of salt affected dirts is one of the ways to get by with salt job but it involves high input cost and is beyond the economic agencies of husbandmans in Pakistan. Ever increasing demand of nutrient, fresh fish and fuel wood is forcing agribusiness to fringy land, therefore increasing the demand of happening ways to use these lands. An alternate attack is to develop and choose salt tolerant genotypes of harvest species. Keeping above facts in position the present surveies have been planned with the aims to look into salt tolerance potency, measure of oil and alterations in chemical composing of different helianthus genotypes under different degrees of salt emphasis and B. The parametric quantities sing agronomic output and economic output ( oil contents ) will be recorded. The chemical composing of foliage sap ( Na, K, Cl and B ) will besides be calculated. Relative growing rate ( RGR ) , comparative H2O contents ( RWC ) , membrane stableness index ( MSI ) , chlorophyll contents, proline in foliages and leaf H2O relation will be measured. Data sing 1000 achene ‘s weight, figure of achene ‘s per caput, caput diameter and oil contents will besides be determined and analyzed statistically utilizing standard processs.

IV ) Introduction

Salt is soil status characterized by a high concentration of soluble salts. Soil is classified as saline when ECe is 4 dS/m or more ( USDA-ARS, 2008 ) . More than 800 thousand hour angle of land through out the universe are salt affected ( FAO, 2008 ) . Most of this salt affected land has arisen from natural causes from the accretion of salts over long periods of clip in waterless and semi waterless zones ( Rengasamy, 2002 ) .The damaging effects of high salt on workss can be observed at the whole works degree as the decease of workss and/or lessenings in productiveness ( Parida and Das, 2005 ) . Adverse effects of salt on harvest growing root from two features ( 1 ) the increased osmotic potency of dirt solution with salt makes the H2O in the dirt less available for workss and ( 2 ) specific effects of some elements ( Na, Cl, B etc ) nowadays in extra concentrations ( Yamaguchi and Blumwald, 2005 ; Munns, 2005 ) .

Boron is frequently found in high concentration in association with saline dirt and removed more easy during leaching ; hence, it may still be present at inordinate concentration in some reclaimed dirts ( Nable et Al, 1997 ) . Boron is indispensable for cell wall construction and plays an of import function in membrane procedures and metabolic tracts ( Blevins and lukaszewski, 1998 ; Lauchli, 2002. and Brown et Al, 2002 ) . High B like salt, is an of import abiotic emphasis that adversely affects harvests in many waterless and semi waterless climes. There are many agricultural countries around the universe where both high salt and high B occur together, impacting the workss ( Tanji, 1990 ) . Salinity and boron toxicity affect membrane and photosynthesis by increasing stomatous opposition and upseting biogenesis of photosynthetic pigments ( Karabal et al, 2003, Sairam et Al, 2005 ) .

Despite the common happening of high B and high salt in many parts of the universe, really small research has been done to analyze the interaction of the two ( Gratten and Grieve, 1999, Bengal and Shami, 2002 ) .

Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L. ) is an of import beginning of vegetable oil i.e. , unsaturated semidrying type like maize ( Zea mays L. ) , benne ( Sesamum indicum L. ) , and cotton seed ( Gossypium ssp. ) used for cookery and nutrient readying worldwide. This harvest is besides grown as a nutrient beginning for direct ingestion ( i.e. , seeds in bites, confects, and birdfeed ) ( Xianan and Wm. Vance Baird, 2003 ) .In Pakistan during twelvemonth 2006-2007 local production of comestible oil is estimated at 0.855 m dozenss. During this period, 2.201 m dozenss comestible oil was imported and 0.349 m dozenss comestible was recovered from imported oil seeds ( Anonymous 2006-07 ) .

Francois, 1996, found sunflower to be a species reasonably tolerant to salt emphasis being unaffected by dirt salt up to 4.8 darmstadtiums ma?’1. Besides ( Katerji et al. , 2000 ) classified helianthus as a salt tolerant harvest on the footing of the appraisal of the harvest H2O emphasis index. Further more, as it requires less figure of irrigations it can be grown successfully with saline sodic H2O with small harmful effects on dirt physical and chemical belongingss.

Increasing salt therefore heighten the B sorption, might be due to salt induced addition in dissociation of H3BO3. Harmonizing to ( Holloway and Alstton, 1992 ) , high B decreased dry affair production, grain output, root length, increase concentration of B and decreased the concentration of Na in the workss when grown under saline status. However literature is limited sing response B under salt-affected dirts. The purpose of present survey is to look into the function of B under saline environment and salt affected dirts on growing, ionic and output of sunflower genotypes of differential salt tolerance.

Keeping in position these considerations, the present surveies will be planned with following aims.

To measure the public presentation of different helianthus genotypes under salt emphasis.

To measure the exacerbating consequence of B in salt stressed sunflower and its output.

To depict the consequence of B on ion contents, chlorophyll contents and other biochemical alterations in helianthus genotypes under salt emphasis.

V. REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Salinization of dirts bounds works growing by bring oning legion physiological and biochemical alterations in cells. Surveies indicate that higher degrees of salt in the irrigation H2O cause more suppression to hit than to root growing. The lessening in roots and shoots weight might be due to alimentary lack mediated by roots ( Khan et al. , 1994 ) . The effects of 10 % and 20 % saltwater were studied in alimentary solutions in 30 day-old workss of helianthus. It was found that 20 % saltwater intervention reduced shoot and root growing of helianthus significantly, while workss treated with 10 % saltwater did non demo important differences in comparing with the control ( Baccio et al. , 2004 ) .

Equally for as alterations in works growing is concerned, comparative growing is an ideal index for measuring seedling growing instead than absolute growing. Under low salt and alkalinity emphasis growing of sunflower seedlings is non inhibited instead it is stimulated. It was besides concluded that comparative growing rate of a intervention with 50 millimeters NaCl was 83 % comparative to the control, but the comparative growing rate of intervention with salt degree equal to 250 millimeter was reduced to -8.03 % ( Shi and Sheng, 2005 ) . The permeableness of the plasma membrane is an apparent index that reflects the grade of stress-induced hurt to workss ( Surjus and Durand, 1996 ) . By and large, plasma membranes are injured more earnestly with escalating emphasis, taking to an addition in the electrolyte escape rate. Using assorted salt alkali emphasis ( Shi and Sheng, 2005 ) showed that increasing salt in helianthus seedling caused more serious hurt on membranes and furthermore, given the same salt values, the hurt is more serious with increasing alkalinity.

Growth of green workss is dependent on photosynthesis. Since it is a primary procedure in works productiveness, increasing its efficiency has long been a end of works research. However, the rate of photosynthesis varies with the alteration in environmental factors, thereby impacting works growing ( Taiz and Zeiger, 2002 ) . For case, suppression of the photosynthetic capacity of different works species by salt emphasis has been reported in a figure of surveies ( Makela et al. , 1999 ) . Decrease in photosynthesis by increased salt could be due to take down stomatous conductance, depression in specific metabolic procedures in C consumption, suppression in photochemical capacity, or a combination of these ( Dubey, 1997 ) .

Salt emphasis increases the accretion of NaCl in chloroplasts of higher workss, impacting growing rate, and is frequently associated with lessening in photosynthetic negatron conveyance activities ( Kirst, 1989 ) . In higher workss, salt emphasis inhibits PSII activity ( Parida et al. , 2003 ) . However sunflower seems to possess the ability of keeping high physiological activities when subjected to mild salt emphasis. In add-on to salt exclusion capacity of helianthus, the compartmentation of ions in its big vacuole ( Greenway and Munns, 1980 ) can explicate the scarce salt consequence on the biochemistry of photosynthesis. Ionic instability occurs in the cells due to inordinate accretion of Na+ and Cl- and reduces uptake of other mineral foods, such as K+ , Ca2+ , and Mn2+ ( Hasegawa et al. , 2000 ) . The accretion of toxic sums of salts in the foliage apoplasm leads to desiccation and turgor loss, and decease of foliage cells and tissues ( Marschner, 1995 ) . Both the desiccation of cells and high Na to potassium ratio due to accretion of high sums of Na ions inactivate enzymes and affect metabolic processes in workss ( Booth and Beardall, 1991 ) . Osmotic emphasis is linked to salt emphasis: salt emphasis involves an surplus of Na ions whereas osmotic emphasis is chiefly due to a shortage of H2O without a direct function of Na ions ( Munns, 2002 ) . It now appears that the conveyance of Na+ across the tonoplast and its accretion in the vacuole is an of import mechanism of works tolerance to salt ( Niu et al. , 1995 ) .

The grounds that sunflower roots appear to possess an inefficient mechanism of Na+ outflow to the root medium suggests the happening of a Na+ exclusion mechanism to the shoot based on an efficient Na+ accretion in vacuole. Plant cells typically maintain a low Na+/K+ ratio in the cytosol, and there is grounds that Na+ is actively transported out of the cytosol at both plasma membrane and tonoplast ( Niu et al. , 1995 ) . While salt sensitive species depend chiefly upon exclusion of Na+ at the plasma membrane, salt tolerant species may roll up big sum sequestered into the vacuole, functioning as osmoticum ( Jeschke, 1984 ) .

Furthermore, salt emphasis affects works physiology at both whole works and cellular degrees through osmotic and ionic emphasis ( Murphy et al. , 2003 ) . Osmotic emphasis is chiefly due to a shortage of H2O without a direct function of Na ions ( Munns, 2002 ) .

One of the chief mechanisms that workss use to accommodate to osmotic emphasis is the osmotic accommodation or osmoregulation, a mechanism by which cells accumulate ions in the vacuole and synthesise compatible solutes such as sugars and aminic acids in the cytol ( Munns, 2002 ; Bartels and Sunkar, 2005 ) . In general accretion of organic and inorganic solutes in the cell is one of chief physiological response of works to salt emphasis. Proline accretion under salt or drouth emphasis is normally considered as an organic compatible osmolyte and a protecting agent or the activity of intracellular molecules ( Tang, 1989 ) . Surveies indicate that proline has protecting function in works growing and productiveness by cut downing the production of free groups and/or scavenging the free groups ( Jain et al. , 2001 ) . ( Shi and Sheng, 2005 ) clearly showed that proline contents in helianthus foliages increased with lifting salt emphasis ; the grade of addition besides tended to be higher with rushs in salt.

VI MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experiment No. 1: Response of different Sunflower genotypes at different degrees of salt emphasis ( Hydroponics survey )

This survey will be carried out at Saline Agriculture Research Centre, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The healthy seeds of 10 Sunflower genotypes will be sown in trays holding 2 inch bed of crushed rocks. At two leaf phase, the seedlings will be wrapped with froth at root shoot junction, will be transplanted in thermo pole sheets with holes in them drifting on 200 L capacity Fe bath, lined with polythene sheet incorporating A? strength Hoagland ‘s solution. Aeration will be given by bubbling air through the alimentary solution 8 hours a twenty-four hours. The solution will be changed every hebdomad. The design of the experiment will be CRD with three replicates. After one hebdomad of transplantation, salt of 60, 120 and 180 millimeter NaCl will be developed step wise with NaCl, whereas, in control no salt will be added. The pH will be maintained 6.5A± 0.5 throughout the experiment. Plants will be harvested after 40 yearss of infliction of salt and informations about shoot fresh weight, Shoot dry weight and root dry weight will be recorded. The to the full expanded 3rd foliage will be sampled and used for the finding of Na+ , k+ and Cl- in the foliage sap. Leaf Na+ and K+ will be determined utilizing the fire photometer and Cl- utilizing Chloride analyser. The information will be analyzed through suited statistical bundle.

Experiment-2

( Hydroponicss )

Growth conditions:

Healthy seeds of selected genotypes ( Two tolerant, two medium ) will be sown in A? strength Hoagland ‘s foods solution as described in experiment-1.After three yearss of transfering required salt degrees ( Control and 140 millimeters NaCl ) will be developed with NaCl salt in three increases whereas no salt will be added in control ; with supply of B-nutrition as H3BO3 i.e. Adequate degree, 2.5mM and 5.0 millimeter.

Measurements:

At harvest, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots will be measured. Plants from each genotype of same intervention will be harvested at 15 and 30 yearss after seeding and separated into foliages and stems after detecting fresh shoot and root weight. RGR will be calculated.Leaf country will be measured by utilizing a leaf country metre. Na+ , K+ , Cl- and B contents will be determined with fire photometer, chloride analyser and spectrophotometer severally.

Statistical analysis:

Statistical analysis will be besides done by utilizing some dependable statistical bundle

Experiment-3

( Hydroponicss )

Growth conditions:

Growth conditions and interventions will be same as described in experiment-2.

Measurements:

At harvest, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots will be measured. Leaf H2O potency ( I? ) and osmotic potency ( I?Iˆ ) from the center of the 2nd youngest to the full developed foliage blade will be measured. Turgor force per unit area ( Tp ) will be estimated from the difference between I?Iˆ and I? . For the finding of chlorophyll contents manus held SPAD-502 metre will be used. Relative H2O contents ( RWC ) , membrane stableness index ( MSI ) in foliages will besides be determined.

Statistical analysis:

Statistical analysis will be besides done by utilizing some dependable statistical bundle.

EXPERIMENT-4

( POT STUDY )

Growth conditions:

A pot civilization experiment will be conducted to analyze the consequence of B supply on growing and output of helianthus in salt-affected dirts, utilizing four sunflower genotypes screened from the first experiment ( Two tolerant and two sensitive ) in the wire house of Saline Agriculture Research Centre, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Soil will be collected from the dirt surface ( 0-15 centimeter ) and analyzed for physiochemical belongingss. The dirt will be air dried and passed through 2 millimeters sieve and thoroughly assorted. Glazed pots will be filled with 12 kilograms dirt per pot. Six seeds of each genotype will be sown in each pot and cutting will be done 15 yearss after sprouting to keep two workss per pot. The recommended doses of N, P and K will be applied.

The coveted degree of salt ( 140 mM NaCl ) and Boron ( 5ppm ) will be developed by adding deliberate sum of NaCl and H3BO3.

Measurements:

At concluding crop shoot length, shoot fresh and dry weight will be determined.

Na+ , K+ , Cl- and B contents will be determined with fire photometer, chloride analyser and spectrophotometer severally. For the finding of chlorophyll contents manus held SPAD-502 metre will be used. Proline in foliages will besides be determined. At adulthood informations sing 1000 achene ‘s weight, figure of achene ‘s per caput. Head diameter and oil contents will be recorded. Data will be subjected to dependable statistical bundle.

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