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Each lab executes trials on the organic structure tissue to obtain information from the cell. The tissues encompass the cells which comprise of cell organs and furthermore ; into supermolecules. For Instance, when the tissues are impaired it is so analyzed.

Cytopathology refers to the subdivision of pathology that surveies and diagnosings disease on the cellular degree. A common application of cytopathology is the Pap vilification, used as a showing tool, to place precancerous cervical lesions and prevent cervical malignant neoplastic disease. Cytopathology is often called cytology, which means “ the survey of cells. The cytotechnologists prepare gynecological and non-gynaecological samples to prove for precancerous or cancerous conditions.

A pablum vilification is an review of the adult female ‘s neck to see if she has malignant neoplastic disease of the neck or any Changes that puts her at hazard for developing cervical malignant neoplastic disease subsequently. The trial was invented by and named after the outstanding Greek physician Georgios Papanikolaou. There are two types of methods used to obtain the specimen, the endocervical brush/spatula protocol and the broom like device protocol.

In The brush/Spatula Protocol, a little sample from the ectocervix is obtained utilizing a spatula ; thenceforth the spatula is rinsed in a PreservCyt solution phial by twirling smartly in the vial 10 times, and so discarded of. Then, an equal sample from the endocervix is obtained utilizing an endocervical coppice. The coppice is so inserted into the neck until the bottommost fibres are exposed. Gradually and easy, the coppice is rotated to a one-fourth or a half bend in one way. Care is taken in guaranting that the coppice is non over rotated. The coppice is so rinsed and discarded of in the same mode of the spatula. Furthermore, the cap is tightened so that the torque line on the cap passes the torque line on the phial. Finally, the patients ID figure is recorded on the phial while the medical history and information is documented on the cytology requisition signifier. Finally the phial and requisition is placed in a bag and transported to the research lab.

When executing the Broom like device protocol, an equal sum of trying from the neck is obtained. This is achieved by infixing the cardinal bristle of the broom into the endocervical canal deep plenty to let the shorter bristles to to the full reach the ectocervix. The broom is so pushed gently and rotated in a clockwise way five times. Thereafter the broom is so rinsed into the underside of the PreservCyt solution phial by forcing the broom into the underside of the vial 10 times coercing the bristles apart. As a concluding measure the broom is sw B rled cvigorously to farther release stuff, and the aggregation device discarded of. Care is taken non to go forth the broom caput in the phial. Thereafter, the cap is tightened, recorded and placed in the same mode as the endocervical brush/spatula protocol.

Recent promotions in the field of Cytology have extended to the sensing of malignant neoplastic diseases from other parts of the organic structure instead than the venereal piece of land. These specimens can be found in topographic points accessible by a all right needle E.g. chest aspirates, pleural ( lungs ) fluids, peritoneal ( abdominal pit ) fluids and CSF ( cerebrospinal fluid ) .


Histopathology refers to the microscopic scrutiny of tissues affected by diseases. Normally, the specimen is observed by a diagnostician, after the specimen has been processed and placed onto glass slides.

The procedure begins with tissues being removed from the organic structure and so placed in a fixative buffered with Na H phosphate which stabilizes the tissues to forestall decay. The most common fixative is formalin. Thereafter, the samples are transferred to a cartridge ( container designed to let reagents to move on the tissue ) ; multiple baths are prepared and the cartridge immerse into. The baths dehydrates the tissue because of being concentrated with ethyl alcohol, followed by toluene/xylene, and eventually extremely hot paraffin. This procedure takes approximately 12 to 16 hours ; at this point in clip the paraffin will replace the H2O turning the tissues moist.

The processed tissue is so taken out of the cartridge and set in a mold. Finally, through a procedure of implanting auxiliary paraffin is added to make a paraffin block. The usage of a microtome allows for the tissues to be really thin ( 2 – 7 micron ) which facilitates for microscopic scrutiny. Finally the pieces are layered on a glass for staining, a combination of hematoxylin and eosin is used in the procedure. Hematoxylin is used to stain nuclei blue, while eosin discolorations cytol and the extracellular connective tissue matrix pink. The pieces are so mounted and put on a slide.


Biochemistry is the survey of the chemical processes in populating beings in peculiar the chemical science of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. It deals with the construction and map of cellular constituents e.g. proteins, saccharides, lipoids, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Other countries of biochemistry include the familial codification ( DNA, RNA ) , protein synthesis, cell membrane conveyance, and signal transduction.

This section subdivides into 3 classs ; informations entry, analysis the modular bench and transition. The informations entry records the name of the patient, age blood type etc. The tissues are so placed into a machine and prepared for analysis ; at this point the patient ‘s endocrine degree is registered. Thereafter, the molecular degrees of substances in the research lab are analyzed. Finally, after the above process, the biochemist reviews the consequences to corroborate any inaccuracies, if any is found it is corrected by reiterating the procedure


Microbiology is the survey of micro-organisms which are unicellular. This comprises eukaryotes such as Fungis and protists, and procaryotes. Viruss, though non purely classed as life beings, are besides studied. Microbiology is a term which includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology and other subdivisions. The swine grippe virus is non tested in Barbados since no virology lab is present ; alternatively the samples are transported to Trinadad and Tobago to be tested.

At the Queen Elizabeth Hospital the Bacteriology Lab is merely one nowadays in this sector. In this lab the bacterial species are classified and characterized on their belongingss or morphology, temperature demand and alimentary medium required for growing. In add-on, differences in cell constituents such as DNA, fatty acids, and antigens can besides sort bacteriums. The bacterial specimen is heated by sterilising and eventually the bacteria is categorized on the effects towards the organic structure which contributes to the diagnosing.


Hematology is concerned with the survey of blood, the blood-forming variety meats, and blood diseases. Blood diseases affect the production of blood and its constituents, such as blood cells, haemoglobin, blood proteins, the mechanism of curdling, etc. Hematologist everyday work chiefly includes the attention and direction of patients with haematological diseases, although some may besides work at the haematology research lab testing blood movies and bone marrow slides under the microscope. In a clinical research lab the haematology section performs legion different trials on blood. The most normally performed trial is the complete blood count besides called full blood count.


Immunohematology is a subdivision of haematology which surveies antigen-antibody reactions and as they relate to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of blood upsets. Immunohematologist day-to-day responsibilities include blood typewriting, cross-matching and antibody designation. A blood type is a categorization is based on the presence or absence of familial antigenic substances on the outside of ruddy blood cells ( RBCs ) . Several of these ruddy Blood types are inherited and represent parts from both parents.

Persons that have A blood type has antigens on the surface of the ruddy blood cell and antibodies in the blood plasma ; for B blood types it is the opposite ( frailty versa ) . A individual is said to hold a AB blood type when both A and B antigens are found in the ruddy blood cells surface and non in the plasma. With respects to blood type O, the individual has neither A nor B antigens on the surface but both antigens in the blood plasma. Besides this blood grouping, it is described by the Rh factor on the surface of the ruddy blood cells. Given that a individual possesses this antigen, he or she is said to be Rh+ while the deficiency of this antigen is described as Rh- .

During the visit at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital the the immunohematologist utilised trays with cells called A B and D Wellss To prove a sample of blood to see the type of blood group it belongs to three different reagents are used for the three different antibodies A, B and Rh. Since the well contained the corresponding reagent in progress, the blood was placed in each well and the consequences observed. if agglutination occurs it indicates that a hypersensitivity reaction occurred and hence non compatible with the blood. If no reaction is observed the antigen adhering the antibody is absent from the blood. In this mode the patient ‘s blood type is determined E.g. AB+ .

Cross-matching blood refers to proving that is performed before a blood transfusion, to find if the giver ‘s blood is compatible with the blood of an intended receiver. Blood compatibility has many facets, and is determined non merely by the blood types ( O, A, B, AB ) , but besides by blood factors, ( Rh, etc. )


Serology is the scientific survey of blood serum or more specifically the designation of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically formed in response to an infection against other foreign supermolecules.

If a individual is exposed to a foreign blood group, the immune system will bring forth antibodies that can specifically adhere to that peculiar blood group antigen, memory cells against that antigen is formed. These antibodies can adhere to antigens on the surface of transfused ruddy blood cells frequently taking to devastation of the cells. When IgM antibodies bind to the transfused cells, the transfused cells can clop. Transfusion reactions affecting minor antigens or weak antibodies may take to minor jobs. However, more serious mutual exclusivenesss can take to a more vigorous immune response with monolithic RBC devastation, low blood force per unit area, and even decease.

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