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Ecomic Progresss Essay, Research Paper

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Jeffrey Cavorley6/11/2000

Mr. Gibbons Global Studies

The civilizations, histories, and former authorities types of many different states

find what the consequence a former female parent state would hold on the new state.

Cultures have ever had different reactions to different events in history, and this had

bearing on the authoritiess of former settlements and how they thought about their former

authorities and status. Many wanted justness for & # 8220 ; land deficit, and the poverty. & # 8221 ;

Others wanted to do peace with their former swayers. Some states felt that their former

authoritiess were & # 8220 ; dirty, & # 8221 ; while another showed contemplation on why the authorities

of the former female parent state failed. A state & # 8217 ; s history would impact the values and

attitudes towards certain topics.

Many different states responded otherwise towards their authoritiess because

of civilization and history. India, Czechoslovak, and assorted African states responded

otherwise towards their former proprietors. India responded peacefully desiring merely or hold

a good relationship with the universe, and a & # 8220 ; universe disarmament. & # 8221 ; This peaceable colony

was due to the history of the state, and its civilization. The Hindus did non believe in

force, and so it could be said that the civilization affected this state & # 8217 ; s relationship with

the universe. Czechoslovak, which was a land filled with wars, was more aggressive

towards its former female parent state. Czechoslovak criticized their former female parent state,

and did non look for a peaceable relationship. Many African states felt the same manner.

Because of the past exile of Africans, and formation of state & # 8217 ; s without any

consideration for geographics and tribal history, Africans were acrimonious towards their former


The former authorities, in which the state was controlled, besides had an consequence

on the type relationship that were held by the two states. India was ruled by democracy,

and remained a democracy, and in a democracy a peaceable manner of thought is dominate.

Czechoslovak was ruled under a totalitarian authorities, and because of this, it was

bitter because the larger state had all the control. African states felt about the same,

but they merely blamed it on the authorities. In the eyes of the Africans all the authoritiess

that controlled them could of better research the country before organizing the states, and non

have treated them every bit cruelly as they did.

Culture, history, and authorities affected the relationships between states, and

their former proprietors. Culture allowed for many different reactions because it is so

diversenesss around the state, and history affected the ideas of the people of assorted

states. Governments of the yesteryear affected the manner a individual idea, depending on how

effectual it was, and how it treated the people.b ) Clapham said conditions improved, and existent

rewards of workers increased and with clip working conditions improved

* degree Celsius ) our & # 8220 ; aureate age & # 8221 ; was built on this foundation ; the really bad conditions were of

a short one coevals continuance ; and in general

the European workers were better off than the provincials

vitamin D ) Thompson believes that there was dietetic betterment: increased

ingestion of meat, tea, sugar, spirits, beer, and murphies replaced wheat

( cheaper ) ; but & # 8220 ; In the 50 old ages of the Industrial Revolution the on the job category

portion of the national merchandise had about surely fallen comparative to the

portion of the belongings owning and professional categories. The working adult male

remained really near to the subsistence level. & # 8221 ;

vitamin E ) evils of kid maltreatment ; protectionist Torahs against kid and adult females labour

degree Fahrenheit ) which came foremost: the poulet ( excess production of merchandises ) or the egg

( markets )

B- Introductory remarks

1- Most of the beginning of power and work was done by animate beings and work forces until 1800

a ) since so machines have been used

B ) power * steam, electric, internal

burning engine, atomic power, solar power

degree Celsius ) this alteration from musculus to advanced power

and from manus tool to machine powered tool is the industrial revolution

vitamin D ) although it is still spread outing in country and

quality of production today, it started in England in the period 1780-1830

2- In malice of the force per unit areas of this period of

revolutions, the workman remained reasonably docile

a ) it involved great mobility of labour and capital

B ) it found fertile seeds in England & # 8217 ; s heritage of autonomy and commercialism

C- The Agricultural Revolution in Britain

1- From 1688 to 1832 the landholders of England dominated the authorities and

created the Agricultural Revolution of excess nutrient and labour

which made the Industrial Revolution possible

2- The landholders, wanting to increase their money incomes, began experimenting

with improved cultivation and stock raising even though these actions were

opposed by husbandmans who tend to be of course conservative in their agricultural


a ) increased usage of fertilizers- guano

B ) usage of new or improved implements

degree Celsiuss ) new harvests: Brassica rapas, murphies

vitamin D ) better harvest rotary motion

vitamin E ) to transport out these reforms the landlord needed full control over his land

degree Fahrenheit ) he had to get the better of the antiquated old system of unfastened Fieldss and common lands

g ) these reforms needed big sums of capital ; this was impossible for many

hapless and little husbandmans

3- The common rights of the villagers was based on the Common Law

a ) merely an act of Parliament could alter them

B ) the aristocracy pushed thru 100s of & # 8220 ; enclosure acts & # 8221 ; , authorising the abolishment

of the old common lands and unfastened Fieldss

degree Celsiuss ) many of the husbandmans were bought or forced

out of their little retentions ; making its tallness during the Napoleonic Wars

4- The productiveness of land and labour increased greatly

a ) better methods meant more and better nutrients

B ) less farm labour was needed to bring forth the same sum of nutrient

degree Celsiuss ) excess labour moved to the metropoliss

vitamin D ) the yeomanry ( little husbandmans ) about vanished

vitamin E ) & # 8220 ; pay gaining & # 8221 ; replaced & # 8220 ; nutrient gaining & # 8221 ; as the basic manner of gaining a life

D- Industrialism in Britain: Incentives and Inventions

1- The British merchandisers had achieved laterality of the universe & # 8217 ; s trade

a ) apparently limitless clients, transportation,

and capital needed more manufactured goods to sell

B ) cotton fabric was in great demand, and could

be produced cheaply and good in English Millss

degree Celsius ) England had sufficient capital, direction,

and stock companies to take up the challenge and hazard of these innovations

2- A series of successful innovations in the fabric industry made possible great

advancement in production

a ) 1733 John Kay invented the winging bird

which increased the velocity of weaving and with it the demand for narration

B ) 1760 & # 8217 ; s the spinning Jenny, a mechanised spinning wheel was developed

degree Celsius ) Arkwright invented the H2O frame for

multiple spinning ; and in the 1780 & # 8217 ; s steam was used

vitamin D ) machinery needed considerable capital and

direction and was concentrated in big Millss and mills

vitamin E ) weaving was besides mechanized

degree Fahrenheit ) Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in the

early 1800 & # 8217 ; s which sped up cotton processing and saved the plantation system

g ) English imports of cotton from 1790-1820 increased 500 % and cotton

merchandises made up 50 % of all English exports

3- The steam engine revolutionized the production of energy

a ) helped by the diminution of Europe & # 8217 ; s wood supply and the bend to char

B ) steam pumps were needed to pump out coal mines

degree Celsius ) in 1763 Watt perfected Newcomen & # 8217 ; s steam engine of 1702

vitamin D ) by the 1780 & # 8217 ; s it was in mass production

4- The steam engines spread quickly and were easy adopted to assorted undertakings

a ) 1807 Fulton applied it to river boats

B ) 1829 the railway ; Stephenson & # 8217 ; s Rocket ran

from Manchester to Liverpool, and by the 1840 & # 8217 ; s they were widespread

E- Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Britain

1- It was no longer & # 8220 ; Merry Olde England & # 8221 ; after the Napoleonic Wars

a ) population greatly increased from 10,000,000 in 1750 to 30,000,000 in 1850

( even with big Numberss emigrating ) and shifted from the South to the new

Midlands industrial countries near the Fe and coal sedimentations

B ) from merely 4 metropoliss over 50,000 in population in 1785 to 31 metropoliss in 1850

2- Manchester was the greatest of the new industrial metropoliss

a ) sprang from & # 8220 ; nothingness & # 8221 ;

B ) in 1845 it eventually ceased to be a manor ; the population grew from 25,000 in

1772 to 455,000 in 1851

degree Celsius ) these metropoliss lacked municipal organisation

and could non cover with urban jobs even if they wanted to

3- The new metropoliss were atrocious, dreary topographic points

a ) crowded slums

B ) household life and morality declined

4- Rise of unskilled labour needed for mills

a ) skilled workers declined in position and pay

as they were no longer in great demand- non like today

B ) wages were excessively low to back up a household ;

therefore all had to work- at lower rewards of class!

5- Factory working conditions were awful

a ) 14 hr + working day and 6 twenty-four hours work hebdomad of boring labour

B ) no vacations or holidaies except for periods of unemployment which were long

and fickle as markets tended to be unsteady in the early

yearss of the Industrial Revolution

degree Celsius ) rewards were kept low by the deficiency of labour brotherhoods, kid labour, and stiff

competition among the manufacturers

6- The & # 8220 ; Cotton Lords & # 8221 ; were the first industrial capitalists

a ) self-made, hardworking work forces

B ) tended to impute their success to difficult work ; others were lazy

degree Celsius ) believed that they did good workss by supplying the hapless with occupations

vitamin D ) wanted a wild individualistic economic system

vitamin E ) 1802 Peel put through the first Factory Act ; tried to modulate child labour but

failed ; there were no inspectors, in fact in this period England had about no full

clip paid civil-servants

degree Fahrenheit ) believed that the free market would finally work things out to the best

involvements of all ; employers, employees, and England

F- Classical Laissez-Faire economic sciences

1- The emerging scientific discipline of economic sciences had a great consequence on English thought

a ) Adam Smith- 1776- The Wealth of Nations ; attacked mercantile system with its

complex ordinances and supported individualistic policies of production and trade

B ) Malthus ( population theory ) and Ricardo ( the Iron Law of Wages ) established

& # 8220 ; classical & # 8221 ; economic sciences ; that all should follow their opportunisms to guarantee the best

consequences for all

degree Celsius ) the authorities should make every bit small as possible ; merely maintain jurisprudence and order, and

hold tribunals to protect contracts ; all else should be based on private enterprise:

charity, instruction, wellness etc.

vitamin D ) there was no flight from the frequently & # 8220 ; cruel & # 8221 ; Torahs of economic sciences

2- The Industrial Revolution was a unsmooth experience for England & # 8217 ; s people

a ) but neither child employment, the 14 hr

twenty-four hours, or unemployment were new ; all had existed in agribusiness

B ) mills and towns merely concentrated poorness in one topographic point

degree Celsius ) so much wretchedness made it apparent and discernible ; reform became inevitable

vitamin D ) workers concentrated in metropoliss recognized their strength and were educated

and nonionized, geting finally a greater portion of the fruits of production

II Political Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

A- Reforms in Great Britain

1- Liberal reforms in England had been get downing

even before the Paris events of July 1830

a ) in the 1820 & # 8217 ; s immature progressives moved up in the Tory Party and revised English

Torahs ; they abolished many capital offenses ; and started a constabulary force

B ) allowed brotherhood forming

degree Celsius ) reduced tariff responsibilities and the Navigation Acts ; favored leting the export of

machinery and the out-migration of skilled labour

vitamin D ) moved towards the secularisation of the

province by abrogation of the Test Act of 1673

2- Certain things they could non make as yet

a ) abrogation the Corn Laws

B ) reform the House of Commons

3- Commons was more unrepresentative than of all time

a ) no new borough had been created since 1688

B ) the new mill towns were unrepresented

degree Celsiuss ) rural countries were over-represented with their lost population ( icky boroughs )

vitamin D ) non all seats were elected, some were appointed by certain members of the

aristocracy based upon medieval & # 8220 ; autonomies & # 8221 ;

4- Attempts to reform the House of Commons before 1830 failed

a ) the events in Paris caused the Whigs to inquire for reforms

B ) the Tory bulk led by the Duke O

degree Fahrenheit

Wellington opposed reforms ; & # 8220 ; England & # 8217 ; s authorities was perfect & # 8221 ;

degree Celsiuss ) when the Whigs reform measure failed many Whig

members of the authorities resigned

vitamin D ) under fright of popular force the jurisprudence was

reintroduced and passed in the Parks

vitamin E ) but was defeated in the Godheads

degree Fahrenheit ) serious rioting throughout England resulted

g ) under the menace of the King naming new

equals, the House of Lords passed the measure in April 1832

5- The Reform Bill of 1832

a ) a really & # 8220 ; English & # 8221 ; voting system resulted

B ) you enjoyed the franchise if you resided in

a borough and paid L 10 a twelvemonth in rent

degree Celsius ) or resided in the state and paid L 10 for

a 60 twelvemonth rental ; or L 50 for a short rental

vitamin D ) if you owned land that could be rented for L 2 a twelvemonth you voted

vitamin E ) the electorate of 500,000 was increased to 813,000 12 % of grownup males voted

degree Fahrenheit ) seats were redistributed: 56 boroughs were

abolished ; 30 were diminished ; and 143 were given to the new industrial towns

6- While non genuinely sweeping, it was considered so by the Whigs

a ) the force per unit area valve of a redeemable Parliament prevented the danger of a


B ) societal and political alterations could be

gained without driving conservativists into an indefensible place

degree Celsiuss ) hope of future advancement

7- The new industrialists now joined the old rural nobility in regulating England

a ) the Whigs and extremist industrialists formed the Liberal Party

B ) 1833- bondage was abolished in the British Empire

degree Celsiuss ) 1835- the Municipal Corporations Act

modernized the authorities of British metropoliss

8- The Tories ( Conservatives ) & # 8220 ; retaliated & # 8221 ; by

reforming the industries which were the strength of the Liberal Party

a ) championed workers

B ) publicized societal immoralities

degree Celsius ) Factory Act of 1833 forbade kid labour of

kids less than 9 old ages of age in fabric Millss

vitamin D ) in 1842 they regulated the coal mines ;

prohibit the employment of adult females, misss, and male childs under 10 old ages of age

9- The Ten Hours Act of 1847 was a great triumph for workers

a ) limited the labour of adult females and kids to 10 hours a twenty-four hours in mills

B ) shortly spread to work forces

10- Liberals, aghast at the modification of individualistic economic policies & # 8220 ; retaliated & # 8221 ;

with the 1838 Anti-Corn Law League

a ) maize Torahs raised nutrient monetary values

B ) industrialists felt that this forced them to pay higher rewards to workers

degree Celsiuss ) others said it was needed to protect and

promote English agribusiness and keep a balanced economic system

vitamin D ) the Corn Laws were repealed in 1846 under industrialist backed force per unit area

11- In England industry had triumphed over agribusiness

a ) England relied for her nutrient supplies upon a universe broad economic system

B ) industrialisation accelerated as economic specialisation in England increased

degree Celsius ) the importance of British sea power was re-affirmed to keep unfastened and control

these universe broad trade paths that were needed for

England & # 8217 ; s survival on imported nutrients

vitamin D ) growing of the & # 8220 ; free trade & # 8221 ; needed by England for her endurance

B- The Challenge of Labor

1- The workers felt left out and estranged

a ) they had a low portion of the addition of wealth

B ) they had forced thru reforms by rebellions

or menaces of rebellions and the middle class got all the political benefits

degree Celsius ) if reform was impossible * destruct the system

2- Concept of a labour market developed ( trade good )

a ) monetary value of labour was kept down by high population

B ) high unemployment was an advantage in this

system as it would maintain down rewards

1848 1997

Precedence for Capital Needs Priority for Consumer Needs

Cheap Food Cheap Food

High Unemployment Low Unemployment

High Population High Population

3- There were two ways out:

a ) reform via brotherhoods ; they merely became legal

in England in 1825 ; and all over Europe were non allowed the right to strike

B ) disown the system and expression for something

new such as compensation based upon demand non production

C- Socialism and Chartism

1- Socialism spread quickly as a philosophy after 1830

a ) in France it joined with radical

Republicans who wished to utilize the events of 1793 as a footing for more reforms

B ) Robespierre & # 8217 ; s works became popular among

workers and intellectuals

degree Celsius ) in England it joined with runs for parliamentary reform

2- An English mass motion, the Chartists, was formed in 1838

a ) anti-capitalistic

B ) demanded working category representation in Parliament ; an terminal to belongings

makings for office ; and wages for members of the House of Commons

degree Celsius ) a & # 8220 ; Convention & # 8221 ; was held in 1839 with representatives of brotherhoods and extremist

societies in London ; a bad name, as it reminded people of the Gallic Revolution,

and some members were revolutionists

3- The Chartists presented a request with 1,000,000 signatures to Parliament

demanding reforms

a ) the & # 8220 ; physical force & # 8221 ; Chartists started public violences

B ) in 1842 the request was re-submitted with

3,317,702 signatures out of a population of 19,000,000 people

degree Celsius ) it was rejected by parks 287 to 49

because they feared reforms would jeopardize belongings rights

vitamin D ) Chartism died out, but may hold created the

ambiance of reforms being needed

vitamin E ) labour brotherhoods concentrated on bettering

labour conditions with greater success

III The Revolutions of 1848

A- 1789 was repeated

1- Violence in the streets ; international rebellion ; even another Bonaparte

2- There were more revolutions than earlier or

since ; no one state dominated it as it spread all across Europe

a ) was it due to an & # 8220 ; international radical motion & # 8221 ; ? – no

B ) it was merely that most people wanted the

same things: constitutional authorities ; national provinces ; and an terminal to serfdom

3- It was a superb flash- so it was gone

a ) there were far making effects ; pan-Germanisn and pan-Slavism grew

B ) Marxism received careful inducements for growing

B- The revolutionists had many purposes:

1- Hungarians wanted an independent province

2- Czechs wanted liberty within the Austrian Empire

3- Italians and Germans wanted national fusion

4- Gallic wanted political reforms

C- There are many positions on the events of 1848 among historiographers

1- Trevelyan: it was a opportunity for broad reforms that was lost

2- Namier: it was the start of the German ultra- patriotism that led to the rise of

Adolf Hitler and the start of states engaging wars to oppress other states

3- Langer: & # 8220 ; 1848 led to sculpt political and societal

struggles ; national hostilities and wars that might otherwise hold been avoided. & # 8221 ;

4- Meinecke: the 1848 revolutions were on a relatively high moral degree

5- Moraze: the revolutions were a socio-economic

phenomenon and were a great triumph for the in-between category

IV Paris: The Specter of Social Revolution in the West

A- The July 1830 Monarchy did non truly work out jobs

or supply profoundly needed reforms

1- From 1830 on republicanism continued to turn progressively socialistic inclinations

a ) although they were merely active in Paris, the utmost centralisation of France

and the function of Paris enabled them to take and

rule the motion through out the state

2- Politicss in the Orleanist authorities was unreal

a ) basic issues weren & # 8217 ; t dealt with due to the narrow involvements ( 3 % of the grownup

male population ) represented in the Chamber of Deputies

B ) even most of the middle class were unrepresented

degree Celsius ) there was widespread transplant and corruptness

vitamin D ) the radical motion was divided: groups wanted cosmopolitan manhood

right to vote and a democracy ; progressives wanted a widening

of the electorate within a constitutional monarchy

vitamin E ) Louis-Philippe opposed any reforms and did non ally himself with the progressives

B- The February Revolution in France

1- A little, individual incident precipitated the revolution ; reformists planned to keep an

anti-king feast in Paris on February 22, 1848

a ) on February 21, the King forbid it and roadblocks sprang up

B ) the National Guard refused to fire on the people

degree Celsius ) the King promised some electoral forms- but it was excessively late

vitamin D ) rioting broke out near the house of the

King & # 8217 ; s curate Guizot, and spread through out the metropolis

vitamin E ) on February 24 Louis-Philippe abdicated and fled to England

2- Armed republicans stormed the Chamber of Deputies

a ) progressives had hoped to go on the house of Orleans

B ) the republicans ruled France with a 10 adult male

commission until a component assembly could be elected

degree Celsius ) 3 of the commission were socialists, and

under strong force per unit area from & # 8220 ; ruddy & # 8221 ; workers

3- Louis Blanc, the socialist leader wanted the

commission to ordain immediate economic and societal alterations

a ) the socialist minority in the authorities couldn & # 8217 ; t do it

B ) the via media worked out was that

& # 8220 ; National Workshops & # 8221 ; would be established

degree Celsius ) a program for a 10 hr work twenty-four hours was rejected

vitamin D ) the issue of a & # 8220 ; just portion & # 8221 ;

4- The National Workshops were a signifier of

unemployment alleviation, non worker-owned mills as Blanc had wanted

a ) workers were put on national defence undertakings

B ) great Numberss of unemployed Paris work forces were in the workshops: March

25,000 ; April 66,000 ; June 120,000 ; plus an extra 50,000 that

were non in the workshops

degree Celsius ) there were 200,000 unemployed work forces in a metropolis of 1,000,000

5- The Constituent Assembly was elected with

cosmopolitan male right to vote in April and met May 4

a ) it selected a 5 adult male board to run France

B ) it was anti-socialist and anti-Blanc

degree Celsiuss ) Paris was non France ; the in-between category and skilled workers resented an income

revenue enhancement that could make 45 % to back up the workshops

6- It was the City versus the Country- as usual

a ) Paris was the largest and most radical metropolis in Europe

B ) the Paris workers were hungering under suffering conditions ; they thought that

they could non wait for slow legal reforms

degree Celsiuss ) by 1848 violent revolution was a tradition in France

C- The June Days of 1848

1- It was the nationally elected Component

Assembly versus the socialist controlled National Workshops

a ) workers were concentrated in a few

locations and subjected to extremist propaganda and programs

B ) May 15, the workers stormed and tried to destruct the Constituent Assembly ;

trusting to set up a new authorities of their ain

degree Celsius ) the National Guard drove out the workers and restored order

vitamin D ) the Assembly prepared to close down the Workshops ; the workers would either

hold to fall in the ground forces or go forth Paris

2- In the bloody June Days of 24-26, 1848 the regular ground forces under General

Cavaignac crushed the armed workers in stiff street contending at the roadblocks ;

10,000 insurrectionists were killed and another 11,000 were shipped away to the settlements

3- The June Days of category warfare terrified Europe

a ) the extremist workers increased their hate of the middle class and their

capitalistic system, and felt that it merely existed by armed force

B ) the center and upper category feared being murdered in their beds

4- In England the February Revolution revived the Chartist motion

a ) 6,000,000 signatures appeared on Chartist requests

B ) the Chartists started to build up and fix to arise in London

degree Celsius ) a Chartist Convention met- would it declare itself a Constituent Assembly?

vitamin D ) the Duke of Wellington ( still about ) swore

in 70,000 voluntaries to support the kingdom

vitamin E ) Parliament rejected the request and the crisis passed with the aid of

authorities infiltration of the motion

vitamin E ) a assorted feeling of complacence still existed in England ; people still had faith in

their establishments

D- The Emergence of Louis-Napoleon in France

1- In France General Cavaignac ruled as a dictator

as the Constituent Assembly drafted a republican fundamental law

a ) the Gallic desired a strong executive to

maintain power, and elections with cosmopolitan male right to vote had the undermentioned consequences:

Lamartine- & # 8220 ; moralism and idealism & # 8221 ; – 18,000

Cavaignac- a disciplined republic- 1,500,000

Ledru-Rollin- & # 8220 ; societal democracy & # 8221 ; – 370,000

Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte- & # 8220 ; ? & # 8221 ; – 5,400,000 won by a landslide

2- Louis-Napoleon, born in 1808 was the boy of Louis, the former King of Holland ;

in 1832 he resolved to reconstruct his household & # 8217 ; s place and Empire ; his attempted

putsch vitamin D & # 8217 ; etats in 1836 at Strasbourg and 1840 at Boulogne failed ; he escaped

prison in 1846

a ) considered to be an anti-capitalist friend

of the common man- yet he stood for order

3- Growth of the Napoleonic Legend

a ) Louis wrote & # 8220 ; Napoleonic thoughts & # 8221 ;

B ) Frenchmen dreamed of past glorifications

degree Celsius ) Hugo and Thiers glorified Napoleon

vitamin D ) 1836- The Arch of Triumph was dedicated

vitamin E ) 1840- Napoleon was buried at Les Invalides

degree Fahrenheit ) the name of Bonaparte had a charming consequence in France

4- Thus Louis-Napoleon became president by a great popular authorization

a ) the Legislative Assembly replaced the Constituent Assembly

B ) with cosmopolitan manhood right to vote it produced a 2/3 bulk for the

royalists, but it was split between Orleanists and Bourbonists

( expletive of the Monarchists )

degree Celsius ) the republicans had the staying 1/3 of the seats, but were split between

socialists ( 180 seats ) and regular Republicans ( 70 seats ) who felt that the chief

issue should be the reform of authorities and non society

5- The President and the Assembly looked to purge republicanism of socialism

a ) in June of 1849 an stillborn socialist rebellion was put down ; 32 socialist

deputies were expelled from the Assembly, and censoring was imposed

B ) in 1850 the poorest 1/3 of the electorate was disfranchised

degree Celsius ) 1850 the Falloux Law placed schools under the control of the Church because

they feared that & # 8220 ; lay instructors have made the rule of

societal revolution popular in the most distant small towns & # 8221 ;

vitamin D ) it was an anti-republic democracy! ; in 1850 it sent military personnels to Rome to destruct

Mazzini & # 8217 ; s democracy and reconstruct the Pope to power ; they stayed until 1870

6- Bonaparte was needed by the utmost conservativists

a ) they looked upon him as a & # 8220 ; care-taker & # 8221 ;

authorities until the Bourbon-Orleanist difference could be settled

B ) Bonaparte turned to the groups for support to increase his power base ; in

1851 he urged the Restoration of cosmopolitan right to vote

degree Celsiuss ) On December 2, 1851 ( Austerlitz Day ) he

carried out his putsch, guaranting control of the ground forces and constabulary

vitamin D ) declared cosmopolitan right to vote and dissolved

the Assembly, while 150 were killed in contending in Paris

vitamin E ) on December 20, 1851 Bonaparte was elected

President for 10 old ages 7,439,216 to 646,737

degree Fahrenheit ) the following twelvemonth he proclaimed himself Napoleon III

7- The Second Republic was dead

a ) it killed itself with its fright of radicalism and diffidence

B ) liberalism, constitutionalism and monarchism besides died

degree Celsiuss ) France was now ruled by a rabble-rouser and dictator: Napoleon III

vitamin D ) what did France privation? even the French did non cognize

V Vienna: The Nationalist Revolution in Central Europe and Italy

A- The Austrian Empire in 1848

1- In 1848 the Habsburg Empire was Europe & # 8217 ; s 2nd most thickly settled province

a ) it was made up of many cultural groups: Germans, Magyars, Czechs, Poles,

Ruthenians, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Dalmatians,

Romanians, and Italians

B ) these people in most topographic points were wholly intermixed

degree Celsius ) the Germans inhabited all of Austria and parts of Bohemia and Hungary

vitamin D ) the Czechs inhabited Bohemia and Moravia

vitamin E ) the Magy

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