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Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous portion of Tanzania, inA East Africa. Zanzibar was one time a separateA province ; it united withA TanganyikaA to formA TanzaniaA in 1964 and still enjoys a high grade of liberty within the brotherhood. Tanzania ( once known as Tanganyika ) gained independency of British colonial regulation in December 1961, it subsequently so became a democracy on December 9, 1962. After the regulation of the Sultanate, Zanzibar islands became independent on January 12, 1964, but subsequently joined with Tanganyika to organize the democracy of Tanzania. Zanzibar City is the capital of Zanzibar which is located on the island ofA Unguja. Its historic Centre is known asA Stone Town ( Wikipedia, 2010b ) .

Physical Features

Location

Zanzibar lies on the east seashore of Africa and consists of two major islands, Unguja Island ( besides called Zanzibar ) and Pemba Island, with several environing little islands organizing a sum of 54 islands which wholly are referred to as the Zanzibar Archipelago. Unguja island is located at about 35 kilometers Northwest off the mainland of Tanzania, and falls within the latitude 6A° 00 ” and 6A° 30 ” South of the Equator, and 39A° 20 ” and 39A° 36 ” E of the Prime Meridian, Figure 4-1 ( Kayhko , Fagerholm, Asseid, & A ; Mzee, 2011 ) . Pemba Island is about 40km separated from the seashore of East Africa and Unguja Island is situated about 40km south E of Pemba.

Urban districtFigure 4-1: Study country location

History and physical geographics

Zanzibar Town is a historical town which was already functioning as a trade Centre for Arabs, Indians and Europeans in the in-between ages ( Gossling, 2002 ) . It besides served as a gate manner to East Africa. Since the mid 1980 ‘s Zanzibar has been a tourer attractive force Centre and is soon sing development in the societal and economic sector, touristry is now a major income earner for the state and attracts investors from all over the universe ( Marks, 1996 ) . Physically, The topography of Unguja Island is by and large level but with a cardinal ridge running from north to south whose highest point is at Masingini about 130m above sea degree Figure 4-1. It is about 86 kilometres long and 39 kilometres wide, and has an country of 1464 square kilometers. Zanzibar experiences good clime conditions which is favorable for agricultural activities, agribusiness serves as the pillar of the economic system and creates a big figure of employment chances.

Landuse Management

The mainland of Tanzania is divided into 21 parts and Zanzibar into 5 parts, North and South Pemba, North and South Unguja and Urban West. Each part is so farther sub-divided into territories. The survey country is situated within the Urban territory in urban west part of Unguja Island. The entire country of Unguja Island is 1464 Sq Km, of which the Zanzibar municipal country covers about 4424 hectares of land ( Khatib & A ; Mmochi, 2004 ) . Table 4.2 shows the land usage construction of Zanzibar municipality at present. About 43.5 % of the built up country is used for residential intents.

For several old ages, a figure of steps have been taken to better land disposal of Zanzibar. The steps have been aimed at doing land available for different intents, increasing productiveness and bettering quality of life, by besides sing the turning population of the island. Zanzibar islands have undergone several alterations in land usage and land ownership throughout their history under different authorities policies, land disposal establishment and different strategies. In 1989 Zanzibar Land and Environmental Management was introduced, in add-on to this, Zanzibar National Landuse program was proposed in 1995. Even though, it is non a comprehensive land usage zoning program for Zanzibar ( Institutional Developments in Land Administration in Zanzibar Salim Rashid ABDULLA, United Republic of Tanzania ) . The program was to assistance in future development and to steer the authorities in strategic planning in the development undertakings such as roads, wellness, instruction installations, agribusiness, touristry etc, but this program was terminated in 1996, due to inaccessibility of fundss. The undertaking re-emerged once more in 2003 under the strategy Sustainable Management of Land and Environment ( SMOLE ) of which the Land Use Planning is a portion. ( The Making and Contents of Zanzibar National Land Use Plan: A brief history on a giver funded undertaking ) .

Based on the 2006 study of the SMOLE undertaking, it stated that the first ongoing landuse program in Zanzibar is outdated. Furthermore, accent was laid more on agricultural jobs and fortunes, projections on population growing were non taken into history and employment chances in different Fieldss of the economic system. Besides, there are no computations refering the future demand of land for different landuse intents as residential, industrial, service, and touristry countries. Land usage economic system has wholly been forgotten every bit good as estimations of the suitableness of land for different intents. ( Sustainable Management of Land and Environment in Zanzibar: Mission Report – Land Use Planning Adviser ) . The spacial distribution of the landuse is presented in figure 4.2.

Land usage class

Area ( hour angle )

Area ( % )

Residential

846

43.5

Roadss and squares

165

8.5

Particular countries

165

8.5

Public unfastened infinites

108

5.5

External communicating

103

5.3

Colleges

95

4.9

Public public-service corporations

59

3

Industry

55

2.8

Public edifices

53

2.7

Agricultural constitutions

33

1.7

Commercial

18

0.9

Other countries

247

12.7

Table 4-2: Land usage construction of Zanzibar Town

Beginning: Modified from Zanzibar Ministry of Water, Construction, Energy, Lands and Environment, 1992.

Figure 4-2: Landuse of Urban territory, Zanzibar

Road Networks

In Tanzania Zanzibar, the dominant manner of transit is by route with 70 % cargo and 90 % rider motion. Despite the importance of the route sector, an norm of about 44 % of the route web is in good status particularly in the rural countries. In Zanzibar, the length of the route web totals up to 1,600 kilometres, of which 15 per centum is earth route and is rehabilitated yearly ( Wikipedia, 2010a ) . By and large, good route web enhances economic development and poorness decrease in sub-sahara Africa, unluckily, bulk of these roads have been ill and inadequately managed. Due to bad route conditions, conveyance cost escalated through high vehicle runing cost ( Addo-Abedi, Ellevset, & A ; Benmaamar ) . However, in Ugunja, attempts are being made by the authorities to reconstruct the roads into good status. Unguja has a entire route web of about 700km. Most of the paved and over 70 % of the crushed rock roads are in bad conditions. Harmonizing to the 2007 interim study of Zanzibar Transport Master Plan ( ZTMP ) , there is a high degree of traffic in the urban countries ensuing in the demand to upgrade the roads. Furthermore, a town program which proposed building of secondary roads was proposed in 1982, this has non been implemented ( ZTMP ) . As stated in the study, the ZTMP ‘s vision for 2020 is to upgrade the chief entree roads, provide improved traffic circulation in urban countries, cut down accidents, better on safety for walkers and non-motorised vehicles, and upgrade coach paths and parking countries.

Demographic features

A sum of 4 nose counts have been carried out on Zanzibar in the last three decennaries, the last being the nose count conducted in 2002, which puts the entire population of Zanzibar at 981,754 ( Basic Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics ) . The survey country for this research is the Urban territory in Zanzibar, from the 2002 nose count, the population stood at 205,870. Statisticss on age distribution shows that people within age group 15 and 64 old ages constitute comparatively higher per centum of 60 per centum of the entire population, when compared with 38 per centum of people below 15 old ages and 3 per centum of people above 65. As a consequence, people in age group below 15 old ages and above 64 old ages are less economically active and the dependence ratio was about 68 ( Basic Demographic and Socio-Economic Characteristics ) . Table 4.3 shows the age and sex distribution of Urban territory, although this information is affected by age mis-reporting due to digital penchant.

Age group

Male

Female

Both Sexes

Percentage

0-4

13312

13326

26638

12.94 %

5-9

12659

13511

26170

12.71 %

10-14

11517

12629

24146

11.73 %

15-19

10748

12313

23061

11.20 %

20-24

12022

12865

24887

12.09 %

25-29

10219

10335

20554

9.98 %

30-34

6802

7520

14322

6.96 %

35-39

5047

6136

11183

5.43 %

40-44

4149

4840

8989

4.37 %

45-49

3414

3481

6895

3.35 %

50-54

3072

2844

5916

2.87 %

55-59

1994

1693

3687

1.79 %

60-64

1643

1680

3323

1.61 %

65-69

957

995

1952

0.95 %

70-74

826

1105

1931

0.94 %

75-79

415

544

959

0.47 %

80+

452

805

1257

0.61 %

Entire

99248

106622

205870

100.00 %

Table 4-3: Entire Population distribution by 5 twelvemonth Age group: Urban territory, Zanzibar.

Beginning: The united democracy of Tanzania, 2002 Population and Housing nose count

Population growing rate

The first population nose count in 1967 shows the entire population of Zanzibar to be 354,815 of which the Urban West constitutes about 27 per centum. Based on a study in Zanzibar in 2006, the entire population was estimated to be 1.1 million, with 40.8 per centum residing in the urban countries ( 2006 Integrated Labour force Survey ) . Using the Compound one-year growing rate CAGR = ( Vf/Vi ) 1/T a?’1, the one-year growing rate in Zanzibar, between 1978- 1988 was calculated to be 2.9 per centum, while it is 3.0 per centum between 1988 and 2002, see table 4.4 below. On the other manus, the growing rate for Urban West part was calculated to be 4.3 between 1988 and 2002 ( Administrator, Thursday, 31 December 2009 10:54 ) . While for Urban territory of Zanzibar, the one-year intercensal growing for 1988 to 2002 is 1.9. A population projection package have been used to foretell the population of the urban West and territory by 2025, by integrating indexs such as figure of people by age and sex in the base twelvemonth, current twelvemonth informations and future premises about Entire Fertility Rate ( TFR ) , age distribution of birthrate, life anticipation at birth by sex, appropriate theoretical account life tabular array, and the magnitude and form of international migration. The projections show that population growing rate will diminish from 2.8 per centum in 2003 ( with a population of 401,337 ) to 1.8 per centum in 2025 ( with a population of 659,109 ) .

Where CAGR = Compound Annual Growth Rate, Vf = Initial Value Vi = Final Value T = Number of old ages.

Census Year

Population

Intercensal Change

Growth Rate ( % )

1967

354,815

1978

476,111

121,296

2.7

1988

640,578

164,467

2.9

2002

981,754

341,176

3.0

Table 4-4: Zanzibar population tendency ( The United Republic of Tanzania Zanzibar, 2002 Population and Housing Census ) .

Population denseness

Unguja ‘s Central District is one of the most dumbly populated countries in Africa. Based on the 2002 population nose count, the population denseness was derived as shown in figure 4.5. From the population denseness informations obtained from the national agency of statistics, some wards like Kwa wazee, kisiwandui, meya and migombani were splitted from other wards after 2002 nose count. These wards hence had no population figures. To acquire the population denseness of these wards, we assumed that the population denseness of the country ( Urban territory ) was unvarying. The form countries of these wards were multiplied by the unvarying population denseness of the country to obtain their population figures which were besides used to cipher their population densenesss. The uncomplete informations shown on the map is as a consequence of un-availability of population denseness informations for the countries from the national agency of statistics. A ward like kilimahewa was splitted into kilimahewa Bondeni and kilimahewa juu, the population figure was assigned to kilimahewa Bondeni, Hence the population denseness of kilimahewa juu was calculated based on this premise.

Figure 4-5: Population denseness

Modal Shift

The most often used manner of conveyance in Zanzibar is the bike, the informations presented in table 4-6 above shows the traffic count, hence, trips made by walker was non considered. It shows that about 40 per centum of the trips made are by bike, approximately 17 per centum by bike, 0.80 per centum by carnal drawncart, approximately 26 per centum uses the private autos ( Saloon autos and Pickups ) . Bus has a average portion of 13 per centum ; Trucks constitute about 1 per centum to the modal portion, with the public-service corporation truck taking 0.04 per centum.

Mode of Transport

Percentage

Bicycle

40.54 %

Animal drawn cart

0.80 %

Motorcycle

17.16 %

Barroom auto

6.01 %

Pickup

20.76 %

Tractor ( Utility truck )

0.04 %

Bus ( 2-axel )

13.34 %

Truck ( 3-axel )

1.34 %

Pedestrian

aˆ•A

Table 4-6: Modal portion

Current state of affairs of public conveyance in Zanzibar

Public conveyance in Zanzibar operates under private ownership, and the authorities do non have or command any public conveyance soon. This manner is by and large known as Dala Dala. Apart from the societal advantages, the public conveyance is besides of import to people populating in the outskirts of metropolis Centres and they chiefly commute utilizing the public conveyance. It is reported as the lone motorised agencies of conveyance, following to autos.

Transportation system in Zanzibar

The chief agencies of transit between coastal small towns is by roads. Every coastal small town is connected to the town by the chief route with rider coachs invariably ferrying people between topographic points. Feeder roads for the coastal small towns are all tarmac except for few 1s like Muwanda and Makoba ( UNEP/FAO/PAP/CDA, 2000 ) . Zanzibar has a entire route web of 1,600 kilometers of roads. 85 % of these roads are tarmacked or semi-tarmacked. The balance are earth roads, which are rehabilitated yearly to do them passable throughout the twelvemonth.

The chief survey country of this research is the urban territory of Zanzibar. The usage of bike is jumping up in this country and due to that the metropolis has proposed to divide traffic types to utilize the bing route infinite more efficaciously and to cut down traffic accidents. Peoples might hold different sentiments about the inconveniency that a mixture of manners like bike and walkers cause. However, this incommodiousness genuinely causes a small or negligible danger to all parties ( The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, 2007 ) .

The usage of bike is jumping up in the Urban District country and due to that the metropolis has proposed to divide traffic types to utilize the bing route infinite more efficaciously and to cut down traffic accidents. Peoples might hold different sentiments about the inconveniency that a mixture of manners like bike and walkers cause. However, this incommodiousness genuinely causes a small or negligible danger to all parties ( The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, 2007 ) .

Sea transit soon serves two intents in Zanzibar Islands. It is fundamentally a agency of external transit and provides a critical nexus between Unguja and Pemba Islands, between the chief islands and the environing islets. Better still, it is the lone means of transit between the Unguja Island and the Tumbatu Island.

The Zanzibar chief port at Maindi acts as a gateway for locals, tourers, and cargo into and outside Zanzibar. Mkokotoni little port is besides in usage but non really often. The port serves for incoming goods from Pemba, Tanga, and Mombasa in dhows and little boats ( UNEP/FAO/PAP/CDA, 2000 ) .

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