Counterfeit merchandises and stuffs are knock-off. moonshine. pirated or other illicitly produced stuffs that are produced and sold in misdemeanor of the Intellectual Property Rights ( IPRs ) of others or in a mode that fraudulently represent their quality or beginning ( Porteus. 2002 ) . Despite the assorted anti-counterfeit attempts of multinationals and international trade organisations. forging continue to present a important and turning menace to concerns. both in developed and developing states ( Vida. 2007 ; Maldonado and Hume. 2005 ) .
Vida ( 2007 ) observed that even in the face of technological promotions that facilitates easy acknowledgment of echt merchandises. and the legal force per unit areas purchasers and Sellerss of forgery merchandises. planetary concerns still lose one million millions of dollars to forgers yearly. The one-year cost of forging is estimated at $ 200 billion and the international trade in forgery merchandises is believed to account for between 3-5 % of overall universe trade.
Most threatening is the fact that several organic structures such as the International Anti-counterfeiting Coalition ( IACC ) and International Intellectual Property Institute ( IIPI ) agree that international trade in imitative merchandise is dining. However. it should be emphasized that the entire losingss due to forging. yearly. should non be measured in footings of the economic desolation caused to genuine merchandise makers. its effects on 100s or 1000s of occupations worldwide. addition in the cost of marketing echt merchandises. reduced trade name equity and hallmark proprietor repute.
Most significantly. the menace to consumer wellness and safety that imitative merchandise airss can non be overemphasized ( Vida. 2007 ; Maldonado and Hume. 2005 ) . Although. counterfeiting is a planetary job. it appears to hold a more important consequence on UAE for a figure of grounds. Pull offing Intellectual Property. an internet magazine on forging. studies that while UAE is one of the fastest-growing economic systems in the universe. it is besides renowned for luxury. touristry. concern and rapid development.
Particularly. its free trade zone that offers attractive inducements for concern. particularly due to its location at the Centre of the Middle East and the Arab provinces of the Gulf Cooperation Council ( GCC ) states besides create the right environments for forgers to market their merchandises. The close propinquity of the free trade zone to taking forgery bring forthing Asiatic states and its position as a transshipment hub besides greatly increases the country’s jobs with counterfeiting.
A recent survey carried out by PricewaterhouseCoopers and reported in the magazine stated that forgery merchandises make up to 68. 5 % of car parts in the market. with bogus pharmaceuticals. the least hit sector. histories for 0. 2 % of merchandises in the market. It is hence really critical that all attempts must be directed towards cut downing this threat. and evidently. cut downing forging. must affect be from the supply or the demand side.
Augusto de Matos. Ituassu & A ; Rossi ( 2007 ) justly contend that actions towards forging can originate from both supply and demand sides. While moving from the supply side include understanding the inducements. principle and factors that encourage or influence people to prosecute in fabricating forgeries. the demand angle involves understanding consumer attitudes and willingness to buy bogus merchandises ( Vida. 2007 ) .
Writers have mostly argued that the supply side of counterfeiting has received an undue sum of attending in recent times. with the demand side mostly ignored. Besides. it is an constituted economic fact that supply is driven by demand ; it is safe to propose that the addition in planetary forgery trades is partially driven by the increasing consumer demands for cheap. substandard merchandises. For illustration. the rise in the market for non-deceptive forgery merchandises strengthens this statement.
Therefore. understanding the demand side could be the most of import tool in contending forging globally. In this respect. this paper. hence. intends to look into consumer attitudes or willingness to buy forgery merchandises in Abu Dhabi utilizing a questionnaire attack to unknot the assorted factors and influences that form consumer attitudes and behaviours when it comes to buying forgery merchandises. Theoretical Model
Vida ( 2007 ) noted that since the mid 1990s when Elisabeth Hirschman. expressed the demand for research workers to research the ‘dark-side’ of consumer behaviours. literatures look intoing and explicating the assorted factors that influence consumer purchase behaviours. particularly with respect to illegal or forge merchandises. have increased well. Constructing on the “willingness to pay” construct. Vida conceived explored consumers’ willingness to buy bogus merchandises.
The writer contended that demographic and socio-economic factors like age. gender. instruction. matrimonial position. income and religionism form consumers’ attitude towards forgeries. innovativeness ( desire to be alone ) and societal force per unit area. These three. in bend. influence consumers’ willingness to buy forgery merchandises. Besides. Xuemei and Veloutsou ( 2005 ) in their exploratory survey. besides reports that personal and societal factors significantly influence consumers’ purchase behaviours.
The writers contended that personal and societal factors such as: value consciousness. normalcy susceptibleness. freshness seeking and Bolshevism. and five attitude steps: dependability of the merchandise in inquiry. functionality of the merchandise. recognized societal benefits of buying the merchandise. hazards of buying and legality of buying. influence consumer purchase of forgery merchandises. The survey found that freshness seeking significantly influences consumer purchase of forgeries merchandises due to the similar or sometimes. superior quality of forgery merchandises.
Furthermore. in a more luxuriant survey. Augusto de Matos. Ituassu and Rossi ( 2007 ) besides found that monetary value quality illation and old experience. among others. significantly increases the opportunities of consumers buying bogus merchandises. This survey. pulling from the findings of the surveies mentioned above. contends that a consumer attitude towards counterfeit merchandise greatly influences their purchase behaviour.
It besides hypotheses that old experience with safety concerns. quality of forgeries with regard to the monetary value. and the purpose to utilize forgeries to prove the merchandise before buying the echt trade names. form consumer attitudes towards forgery and later. their buying of forgery merchandises. Augusto de Matos. Ituassu and Rossi ( 2007 ) justly indicate out that quality and monetary value are two cardinal factors that form consumer purchase behaviour. Traditionally. consumers believe that lower priced merchandises are of lower quality. and this is mostly the instance with delusory forgery merchandises.
However. with non-deceptive forgeries merchandises. consumers are offered merchandises of similar or superior quality. compared to the echt merchandises. at lower monetary values. The combination of low monetary value and high quality is bound to better consumer attitudes towards forgeries. For this ground. it is expected that: Counterfeits with superior quality enhances consumers’ perceptual experience and attitudes towards forgery merchandises. Safety concerns are one of the most of import issues with forgery merchandises. These merchandises have been known to present important menace to consumer wellness and safety. particularly when it concerns medicines and family points.
However. non all consumers consider imitative goods to be insecure or unsafe. It is expected that: Consumers who consider imitative goods to be insecure and unsafe will hold unfavourable attitudes towards forgery merchandises. and frailty versa. Last. freshness seeking can besides act upon consumer attitude towards forgery merchandises. This feeling refers to individuals’ demand for a sense of worth or societal acknowledgment ; people ever want to be seen as particular and capable of affording material things. The increasing philistinism in the universe means that people that can non afford the finer things of life feel unworthy.
Since the presence of cheaper and yet choice forgery merchandises provide the chance to afford these luxuries. persons in the lower economic scope are frequently willing to buy such forgery merchandises. Therefore. it is expected that the sense of freshness influences consumer attitude towards forgery merchandises. Method To look into the influence of the factors discussed above on consumer attitude towards buying forgery merchandises. this survey surveyed a cross subdivision of persons in the metropolis sing their perceptual experiences of forgery merchandises.
The research instrument adopted was questionnaire. The questionnaires. dwelling of a 100 direct inquiries in Likert scale manner. changing from 1 ( wholly disagree ) to 7 ( wholly agree ) . were distributed to pupils on campus at several shopping centres. Because the questionnaires. in most instances. were self administered. respondents were encouraged to reply all the inquiries provided. Due to this. a sum of 95 valid and useable questionnaires were collected at the terminal of the study. Of the 95. 30 were below 20years old. 45 between 21 and 25 old ages old. with the remainder above 26years old.
With regard to instruction. more than half of the respondent had at least high school certification. and interestingly. about all of them ( about 80 % ) had purchased imitative merchandise in the yesteryear. Results Table I below nowadayss the entire figure of questionnaires collated and the mean of responses for each of the variables under probe. As presented in the tabular array. the mean of respondents who rated superior quality. cheap tests and freshness as of import factors for sing imitative merchandises were 4.
4674. 4. 2211 and 4. 0053 severally ; while the several standard divergence were 1. 16843. 1. 35759. 1. 17881 N Attitude Superior Quality Tryout Novelty Valid 95 92 95 93 Missing 0 3 0 2 Average 3. 5447 4. 4674 4. 2211 4. 0053 Std Deviation 1. 33188 1. 16843 1. 35759 1. 17881 Minimal 1. 00 1. 00 1. 00 1. 00 Maximal 7. 00 7. 00 7. 00 7. 00 Table I To farther step the influence of these variables on consumer attitude towards forgery merchandises. correlativity coefficient was calculated for the variables.
The consequence indicated that all three variables significantly influenced consumer attitudes. with superior quality showing the most important influence. For superior quality. R = . 668. R = . 395 for forgery merchandises as trials. R = . 653 for freshness ( correlativity is important at the 0. 01 degree for all variables. ) As obvious from the three spread diagrams supra. this survey found a important correlativity between the superior quality of forgery merchandises and consumers’ favourable attitude towards buying such goods.
Besides. the survey showed that consumers see inexpensive forgery goods as an chance to tryout merchandises before buying them or in other instances. as a better chance to have merchandises they. otherwise. will non be able to buy. Discussion and Recommendations Counterfeiting is a turning planetary threat ensuing in the loss of several one million millions of dollars yearly. In happening the right tool to contend this threat. research workers and policy shapers have focused on either the supply side or demand side of the job. although. there seem to be more attending on the supply side.
This paper argued that demand is a major driver of supply and that by understanding the grounds and factors that encourage demand for forgeries. the battle against forgers will take a different and better dimension. In truth to this averment. several writers have investigated the personal and societal factors that influence demand for imitative merchandises. In part. this survey investigated the influence of three variables: superior quality of forgery merchandises. utilizing imitative goods as cheap tests before buying echt 1s. and freshness seeking urges.
The consequence of this survey established the hypotheses proposed earlier that these variables significantly influence demand for imitative merchandises. It is an established fact that monetary value and quality are two major determiners of consumer purchase behaviour. However. by showing consumers with superior quality merchandises at lower monetary values. the inclination to buy these forgeries merchandises will be well higher than the echt merchandise. because in making so ; the persons will be having higher value for lesser money than if they have purchased the original.
It. therefore. becomes easier for consumers to apologize their actions. The instance is besides similar for the two other variables. forgery merchandises offer consumers the opportunity of purchasing merchandises they. normally. will non be able to afford. or the chance to seek the merchandise before buying the original. In both instances. consumers are salvaging money and accomplishing their aims. Recommendations It is evident that. among other things. monetary value and quality significantly drive demand for imitative merchandises.
Manufacturers of genuine should endeavor to supply consumers with merchandises of similar or even quality. compared to shams. at sensible monetary values. Manufacturers should besides emphasize the fact that by buying shams. consumers are increasing the cost of echt merchandises and destructing the occupations of several others. For as Xuemei and Veloutsou ( 2005 ) pointed out. consumers are besides influenced by the desire to be accepted by important others. by stressing the moral facet of buying shams. makers can significantly deter consumers from buying forgery merchandises.
Conclusion Although. counterfeiting is a serious planetary job. really small is known about why consumers choose to sponsor such bogus merchandises. This survey has shown that the superior quality of some bogus merchandises. their lower monetary value. which enable consumers to seek them out before purchasing echt 1s or to ain merchandises they would non hold been able to afford. greatly improve consumer attitudes towards forgery merchandises. It is recommended that makers should endeavor to run into the quality and monetary value of forgeries to cut down the demand for bogus merchandises.
Mentions Augusto de Matos. C. . Ituassu. C. T. and Rossi. C. A. V. ( 2007 ) . Consumer attitudes toward forgeries: a reappraisal and extension. Journal of Consumer Marketing. Vol. 24 No. 1 pp. 36-47. Maldonado. C. and Hume. E. ( 2005 ) . Attitudes toward forgery merchandises: an ethical position. Journal of Legal. Ethical and Regulatory Issues. Jan-July. Pull offing Intellectual Property ( 2008 ) . How to undertake shams in the UAE. Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www. managingip. com/Article/1940730/How-to-tackle-fakes-in-the-UAE.
hypertext markup language ( Dec 13 2008 ) . Porteous. S. D. ( 1998 ) . Organized Crime Impact Study Highlights. Paper Prepared for Public Works and Government Services of Canada. Cat. No. JS42-83/1998. Xuemei. B. and Veloutsou. C. ( 2005 ) . Consumers’ attitudes sing non-deceptive forgery trade names in the UK & A ; China. Brand Management. Vol. 14. No. 1. pp. 211-222. Vida. I. ( 2007 ) . Determinants of Consumer Willingness to Buy Non-Deceptive Counterfeit Products. Pull offing Global Transitions. Vol. 5. No. 3. pp. 253–270.