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Cloning Essay, Research Paper

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To Clone or Not to Clone?

In February 1997, when Dr. Ian Wilmut and his squad of scientists in Scotland astonished the

universe by denoting that they had successfully cloned a sheep, it sparked an international

argument. Since the innovation of Dolly, scientists have been faced with the at hand engineering to

ringer human existences. This has raised inquiries about what it means to be human and what

limitations should be placed on scientific research.

Scientists should utilize methods of cloning of single human cells because it provides

benefits of bring arounding diseases and regrowth of damaged variety meats or tissues. However, scientists

should non clone whole grownup human existences because of the misdemeanor of moral, ethical, and

spiritual concerns. Hence, scientists must divide doing trim organic structure parts from doing whole

people.

Compton? s Interactive Encyclopedia defines cloning as:

The production of duplicate transcripts of familial stuff, cells, or full multicellular life

beings. The transcripts are referred to as ringers. Cloning occurs of course and is besides

engineered by human existences. The possibility that people might be cloned from the cells of

a individual grownup homo had long been a capable chiefly of phantasy and scientific discipline fiction but

became really definite at the terminal of the twentieth century. This possibility stemmed from the

successful cloning of lower mammals, go forthing small uncertainty in many scientists? heads that

worlds could and would one twenty-four hours be cloned. ( 1 )

In nature, and even in the lives of worlds, ringers are present. A ringer is an being that

has the same familial information as another being. Cloning occurs with all workss, some

insects, algae, and even worlds. Identical twins are ringers of each other. They have the same

exact familial information due to the division of an embryo in early development which produces

two indistinguishable embryos. Therefore, natural cloning already exists. Cloning is presently a engineering

that many people could utilize.

The benefits that cloning could offer scope from bettering conventional carnal genteelness to

extinguishing any desirable cistrons in worlds. Scientists are besides chew overing the thought of cloning

endangered species to increase their population. The possibilities are eternal. However,

scientists are making much of the research to profit human life.

Agribusiness may profit greatly from cloning research. Livestock breeders could use the

cloning techniques to bring forth more consistent merchandises. For illustration, a cow that has really tasty

meat could be cloned so that a husbandman or corporation would hold a whole herd that produces

really tasty meat. Therefore, a more consistent merchandise might stabilise monetary values husbandmans receive for

their meat, which would profit little farms. This type of benefit could be extended to most

farm animal. It might be possible that animate beings could transport out familial changes that could take

some familial human diseases. These animate beings would so bring forth human proteins in milk.

In the New York Times, Gina Kolata reveals, ? cloning could besides better the agricultural

industry as the technique of atomic transportation improves, farm animal can bring forth biological proteins

assisting people who have diseases including diabetes, Parkinson? s, and Cystic Fibrosis? ( A3 ) .

Cloning could offer a agency of bring arounding diseases or offer a technique that could supply

healthy variety meats and tissues for people who need them. For illustration, in a Time magazine article

? The Case For Cloning? , one author negotiations of more benefits through cloning.

She elaborates by stating, ? An aged adult male develops macular devolution, a disease that

destroys vision. To bolter his neglecting seeing, he receives a graft of healthy retinal tissue

? cloned from his ain cells and cultivated in a lab dish? ( Nash 6 ) . In the same article

Madeleine Nash besides states, ? A babe miss is born free of the cistron that causes Tay-Sachs disease,

even though both her parents are bearers. The ground? In the embryologic cell from which she

was cloned, the blemished cistron was replaced with normal DNA? ( 6 ) .

Cloning could offer new hope for twosomes who aren? T able to hold kids. Besides cloning

could supply a new option for individual adult females who would wish to hold kids. Some

scientists are already researching these avenues of research. For illustration, a scientist by the name

of Richard Seed plans to clone babes for sterile twosomes.

Jeff Flock, a newsman for CNN says, ? Seed, who is non a medical physician, says he has already

assembled a group of physicians willing to work with him and has four twosomes who have

volunteered to be cloned. Seed plans to utilize the same technique utilized by Scots scientists in

1996 to clone the grownup sheep Dolly. If he is barred from prosecuting his work in the United States,

he plans to travel to another state. He said he has talked with functionaries in Mexico, and besides was

sing the Bahamas. ? Seed says, ? Cloning and the reprogramming of DNA is the first

serious measure in going one with God? ( 1 ) .

Get downing in Chicago, Seed plans to put up profitable human ringer clinics nationally.

Roger Highfield disputes, ? whatever the Seed brothers are stating their human clients, they

are surely non able to state them what the hazards might be, since no 1 yet knows the scope or

magnitude of hazards in Primatess, allow entirely worlds? ( 10 ) .

All of these are good grounds for cloning, but who is to state that this engineering should be

used in the first topographic point? There are several grounds for censoring cloning and legion dangers

associated with the cloning of worlds. It? s much easier to clone sheep or caprine animals than worlds,

and harmonizing to the facts, it took over two 100 attempts to bring forth one cloned sheep ; the

unsuccessful efforts were merely discarded.

In Robert Marquands article he confirms, ? An experiment to ringer worlds would necessitate

repeated attempts, with the possibility of many failures in? trial? instances taking to success. Dolly

the sheep took 277 attempts, with a figure of ugly errors, before a healthy and complete sheep

was born. Experiments with worlds could take between 100 and 1,000 attempts, some geneticists

speculate? ( 2 ) .

Are scientists to put this sort of value on human life? If this is true, they have crossed the

line in scientific experimentation. Even the scientist who created Dolly, Dr. Wilmut and his

coworkers believe that it would be unethical to

attempt and ringer worlds. The House Majority

leader Dick Armey submitted a statement to the House Commerce Committee in support of a

lasting prohibition on human cloning. Armey provinces: ? Cloning worlds is incorrect. It should be

banned for good, without loopholes, throughout the United States. ? He continues, ? the

international devastation of populating human embryos is unethical and unacceptable. If an embryo

is spliting and developing, it is a member of the human household and deserves our regard. And

destructing it is abhorrent to the American populace? ( 2 ) .

The United States lags behind many other states that have already placed prohibitions on homo

cloning. Nineteen European states have signed an understanding to forbid the familial reproduction

of worlds, some of these states include: Britain, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, and

Spain. Bills were introduced to Congress in 1997 that would forbid cloning worlds and

criminal federal support for research in human cloning, but several scientists have urged Congress

to detain action until the committee makes its recommendations. Clinton established the

National Bioethics Advisory Commission in 1995. It? s chaired by Princeton University

President Harold Shapiro, and includes experts from scientific discipline, jurisprudence, doctrine, divinity and

industry. Two old ages after the Commission was created, they were faced with intense populace

argument to turn to the issues of human cloning.

Despite the statements from scientists who urged the committee non to hotfoot opinion with

prohibitions that could forestall human cloning and research, the committee approved The Human

Cloning Research Prohibition Act. This measure prohibits federal financess from being used for research

that includes the usage of a human bodily cell atomic transportation engineering to bring forth an embryo ;

in other words, it bans federal support of human cloning.

As Deborah Mathis notes, ? their proposal would do it a offense to make human embryos by

trading Deoxyribonucleic acid in a procedure called bodily cell transportation. Violators would be capable to up to 10

old ages in prison and mulcts every bit high as $ 250,000 & # 8243 ; ( B3 ) .

There are moral and ethical grounds for censoring human cloning. Worlds are a cherished life

signifier and should protect the self-respect of human life. It is incorrect to utilize cloning to experiment with

the creative activity of human life. Cloning is an abuse to spiritual beliefs. It seems like scientists are

playing God, and cloning interferes with the natural procedure that God has mapped out for people.

In his article, Steve Berg writes, ? The cloning of worlds is a signifier of? God drama? that violates

single human self-respect. Believing that God created worlds in God? s ain image means that

every human being is of import, that none is disposable, that each has a portion in populating out God? s

creative activity, and that each is responsible to God for the life he or she lives, bookmans say? ( E7 ) .

Religious organisations consider atomic transportation would do work forces to be reproductively

obsolete. This claim was drawn from the assemblage of information that cloning requires merely any

cell and a adult female to develop in. They besides claim that cloning does non esteem the fact that

worlds have souls. Cloning and familial technology both effort to take the cistron pool out of

the custodies of natural choice and into the custodies of worlds.

Familial technology adds a new dimension into the image. It would let scientists non merely

to double worlds, but to hone them every bit good. This seems good when seeking to destruct

familial diseases, but it rapidly turns into serious moral and societal struggles. When people

make up one’s mind what cistrons to put into the population, and which to go forth out, so they are in a sense

playing God. Human cloning and familial technology would necessarily turn into the hunt for

the perfect homo.

Throughout history world has been full of societies and civilizations in which one type of race

is valued over another. In China, for illustration the violent death of babe misss was a common pattern

because of a jurisprudence which permitted merely one kid. Males where more valuable in their civilization, so

females were selectively exterminated. Besides, Nazi Germany killed Jews, homophiles, and

other imperfect people in order to make the perfect Aryan race. Eugenicss such as these would

have been even easier by cloning and familial technology. Alternatively of kill offing people who

didn? t fit the criterions of flawlessness, full populations could be made to suit the cast.

The job with this perfect society in head is the diminution of familial diverseness. Diverseness

makes life and human interaction interesting. Peoples were given different genetic sciences for a ground.

One ground may be the likely goon of a disease or virus that could ensue in destructing an full

population. Another ground is that cloning could interfere with the procedure of natural development.

It is indispensable that other countries of familial research and non-human cloning research continue.

Scientists are doing great paces in understanding the implicit in causes of diseases,

developing possible remedies, and prosecuting other assuring countries of research. Because of the

moral, ethical, and spiritual concerns raised by the cloning of worlds, it would be good to

explore the direct usage of single human cells to bring forth tissues or variety meats for organ transplant

into patients.

As of yet, there has been no possible good usage for the cloning of worlds, so possibly scientists

should see keeping off on human cloning. There is more of import scientific research that

these talented scientist could be working on.

.

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Plants Cited

Armey, Dick. ? Testimony in support of a Permanent Ban on Human Cloning to the House

Commerce Committee. ? 12 Feb 1998. Capitol Hill Press. 2 Dec 1998

Berg, Steve. ? Begotten non Made? ? Minneapolis Star 26 Apr 1997: E7+

? Cloning. ? Comptons Interactive Encycopedia. 1999ed.

Flock, Jeff. ? Who is Richard Seed? ? 9 Jan. 1998. CNN Interactive [ www document ] URL

Highfield, Roger. ? Science: What next: Vicky the Clone? ? Daily Telegraph 5 Dec. 1999: 10+

Kolata, Gina. ? Lab outputs Lamb with Human Gene. ? New York Times 2 Dec.1997: A2+

Marquand, Robert. ? Cloning Bolts Ahead & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .Toward People? ? Christian Science Monitor

22 Jan. 1998: 1-3

Mathis, Deborah. ? Senators offer a Bill that would Ban Human Cloning. ? Gannett News

2 Mar. 1998: B3+

Nash, Madeleine. ? The Case for Cloning. ? Time 9 Feb.1998:15-18

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