The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases ( KMT ) is an account and description of the gesture and behaviour of molecules. It looks into the kinematics of molecules. wherein focal point on the forces exists between molecules and the energy generated by the gesture of these molecules ( Poseidon Software and Invention. 1997 ) . Etymologically. the KMT comes from “kinetic” which means traveling. and “molecular” which comes from the root word molecule. classically the smallest unit of atom.
The KMT includes several posits which describe how the molecules of gases behave. The following are features of how gas molecules behave: ( 1 ) Gass are composed of really little atoms called molecules ; ( 2 ) the molecules are really big in figure ; ( 3 ) they are absolutely spherical in form and elastic in nature ; ( 4 ) their volume is negligible which implies that they can travel freely ( Dogra. 1984 ) ; ( 4 ) the mean distance between molecules is comparatively big as compared to their size ( Kotz. et Al. . 2008 ) ; ( 5 ) they behave in a province of changeless. random gesture following Newton’s Laws ( Selvaratnam. 1998 ) ; ( 6 ) they move in a consecutive line until they “collide with another [ atom or with ] the walls of the container” ( Whitley. 2005. n. p. ) .
( 7 ) the hits of the gas molecules with other atoms or with the walls of the container are absolutely elastic such that the entire kinetic energy after the hit is equal to the entire kinetic energy before the hit ; ( 8 ) there are no attractive or abhorrent forces between the molecules. and merely during hits do the atoms exert forces on each other ( Wulfsberg. 2000 ) ; ( 9 ) there is no energy lost during the hits ; energy is conserved ; and ( 10 ) the mean kinetic energy of the atoms depends on the temperature of the system.
These posits can be farther illustrated in footings of the reading of the temperature and force per unit area of a gas. Temperature. being a macroscopic feature of affair. is “interpreted in footings of the kinetic energy of the molecules” ( Selvaratnam. 1998. p. 183 ) . There is a straight relative relationship between the temperature and the kinetic energy of the molecules of a gas. This means that an addition in temperature causes a similar addition in the kinetic energy or rapid motion of the molecules.
“The hotter the gas is. the faster its atoms move” ( Whitley. 2005. n. p. ) . Pressure. on the other manus. is “due to the ceaseless barrage of the walls of the container vas by the one million millions and one million millions of molecules present” ( Selvaratnam. 1998. p. 183 ) . This lone means that if more hits occur. the force per unit area is higher. The single gas Torahs could be put into position in relation to the KMT. Harmonizing to Boyle’s Law. “at changeless figure of moles and temperature. force per unit area and volume are reciprocally proportional” ( Whitley. 2005. n. p. ) .
Charle’s Law. on the other manus. provinces that “at changeless figure of moles and force per unit area. the volume and the temperature are straight proportional” ( Whitley. 2005. n. p. ) . A 3rd Gas Law consists of the theory that “at changeless figure of moles and force per unit area. the volume and the temperature are straight proportional” ( Whitley. 2005. n. p. ) . These single gas Torahs. if combined. would bring forth an “ideal” gas. In relation to the gesture of the molecules. the molecular activities in the three provinces of affair differ in several facets.
In the solid province. the atoms are packed in a more closely mode. They are held closely to one another by their attractive forces ( Poseidon Software and Invention. 1997 ) . These strong. attractive forces between the atoms cause them non to travel freely and alternatively. vibrate. This characteristic consequences in a definite form and volume of solids. In the liquid province. the intermolecular forces merely permit the atoms to flux or glide over one another. As compared to solid. the gesture of the molecules is more random.
The form and volume of a liquid is dependent on its container. The intermolecular forces are besides indispensable in understanding the disintegration of things. In the dissolution procedure. the molecules of the solute are surrounded by the molecules of the dissolver. Here. “molecular bonds between molecules of solute have to be broken and molecular bonds of the dissolver besides have to be disrupted” ( Educating Online. 2007. n. p. ) .
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Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity. U. S. : Cengage Learning EMEA Poseidon Software and Invention. ( 1997. November 16 ) . Kinetic Molecular Theory. Retrieved March 6. 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. psinvention. com/kinetic. htm. Selvaratnam. M. ( 1998 ) . A Guided Approach to Learning Chemistry. South Africa: Juta and Company Limited. The Kinetic Molecular Theory. ( 2009 ) . Bodner Research Web. Retrieved March 6. 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //chemed. chem. purdue. edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch4/kinetic4. hypertext markup language. Whitley. K. ( 2005. May 13 ) . Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases. Retrieved March 6. 2009 from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. chemprofessor. com/kmt. htm. Wulfsberg. G. ( 2000 ) . Inorganic Chemistry. U. S. : University Science Books.