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Changes in the universe and industry

In the last few decennaries, the cordial reception industry has gone through many alterations. Harmonizing to Go and Pine, ( 1995 ) and Guerrier et Al. ( 1998 ) , alterations in the industry are chiefly due to the globalisation. Supported by Barrows C.W and Power T. ( 2009 ) globalisation is of all time spread outing its boundary lines. The falling of trade barriers around the universe is undeniable with states doing trade understandings with each other, everyone benefits. The falling of barriers in North America and the Europe are the major discoveries. With North America and European states holding a major trading function with other states, the easiness of fiscal dealing and information is an of import measure in the restructuring of the cordial reception industry. Besides globalisation, the growing of multiple ownership of hotels and stronger hotel stigmatizations in the late 90 ‘s and early 20 ‘s has affected the cordial reception industry, particularly in organisational construction. ( Go and Pine, 1995 & A ; Guerrier et Al, 1998 )

Furthermore, in this twenty-four hours and clip, while those alterations are still relevant, there are many other factors that contribute to the ever-changing nature of the cordial reception industry. World altering incidents such as the tragic terrorist events in North America, Madrid, London and Bali, the terrible acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) , hurricane Katrina, the economic system downswing, the A ( H1N1 ) influenza pandemic and political tensenesss of the past decennary will hold a permanent consequence on how the cordial reception industry will run. While there are disputing issues in the yesteryear, ne’er has the industry have to confront with so many issues at one clip. However, in the face of these challenges, the cordial reception industry is set to crush outlooks on economic recovery with Global Travel & A ; Tourism Economy existent GDP growing is expected to lift by 2 % this twelvemonth crushing the estimation of 0.5 % , and therefore making an excess 946,000 occupation worldwide. ( WTTC, 2010 ) High profile cordial reception establishments have gotten together and hosted panel treatments and surveies on the effects of these tragic incidents on the industry peculiarly on the terrorist incident of September 11, 2001. Both short term and long term effects are seen on the cordial reception industries.

These surveies have identified different effects runing from people non going for any ground to going for of import demands and eventually to somewhat normal travel forms of the yesteryear. Surely but easy the forms will make normal degrees but the inquiry here is when.

Tendencies of the cordial reception industry

These yearss as more and more people travel the universe be it for pleasance or concern, they want someplace every bit close to place to experience comfy. However, there are other people who want otherwise, something different instead than holding the same feeling at place, they want a different experience of life manner which they can merely woolgather off. ( Weissinger, 2000 ) In order to carry through this desire for different life manners, there are many sub-categories of hotels runing from staff of life and breakfast, concern hotels, resorts, etc. The front office section is frequently considered the nervus Centre of a hotel and is unchanged in footings of functions to be played no affair the type of hotel. ( Bardi, J.A. , 2007 ) Harmonizing to Vallen and Vallen ( 2004 ) forepart office is defined in footings of function as the first and chief contact point between a invitee and an operating hotel. By and large the front office activities can include all maps that center around the response desk and its allied countries. This can be simplified from recognizing invitees, supplying of information, checking in and out, till the minute they leave the belongings. Roldan ( 2004 ) states that the key to success of a hotel concern starts off with the first contact between the invitee and the hotel forces. Bing the first contact point, the front office staff ‘s first feeling upon a hotel invitee is critical ; the manner they are received and treated can intend perennial backing in the hereafter.

The future professionals of the industry have to analyse who their clients are and what they want. In today ‘s twenty-four hours and age, Bardi J.A. , ( 2010 ) and Barrows C.W. , and Power T. , ( 2009 ) supports Go and Pine, ( 1995 ) and Guerrier et al. , ( 1998 ) in its alterations of factors in the industry and moreover identifies extra facets such as the different tendencies of clients that foster growing in the industry, the writer says that, the tendency towards the addition in leisure clip and working less old ages is one ground behind the growing. The 2nd factor would be the pleasance construct of consumers that was brought Forth Barrows C.W. , and Power T. , ( 2009 ) reinforced by Bardi, J.A. , ( 2010 ) saying that the work moral principle of the eighteenth and 19th centuries have greatly influenced the manner Americans drama.

Diversion and leisure were considered privileges. With that in head, in the universe today, as the current tendency for discretional income in the outgrowth of bipartisan income and household planning is dining, the cordial reception industry is altering.

Problem Statement

The cordial reception and touristry industry is an ever-changing industry with new technological progresss and tendencies that comes in moving ridges and so disperses. Hotels being a portion of the industry have to accommodate and alter every bit good. The hotel front office is one country that has to invariably reorganise with the alterations in the industry. In respects to the fluctuating environment of the industry, the industry is still doing a rejoinder, stronger each twelvemonth. Both the demand and supply for workers are present at province ; nevertheless, the qualities of these workers are still in inquiry. The high labor turnover experienced in the cordial reception industry is common in this twenty-four hours and clip and can be due to many factors such as long working hours, low wage, the broad array of occupation chances and many more. In the cordial reception industry, particularly in the hotel sectors, service is the key to retaining clients ( Maxwell, Watson and Quail, 2004 ) and is what separates competition these hotels from one another. Therefore, it is non a job to be taken lightly and this survey aims to take a expression at the people of the work force itself.

Research Questions

What are the cardinal accomplishments and properties needed to be effectual in the front office section?

Department of energies graduating with a high school certification, sheepskin or grade in hotel direction make a difference in footings of acting?

What are the future chances of front office employees?

What are the purposes of front office employees?

What are the natures of front office work?

How make the industry participants retain its employees?

Research Aims

To look into and analyse the cardinal accomplishments and properties to be effectual in the front office section.

To look into the topic of obtaining a high school certification, sheepskin or grade in hotel direction ; does it do a difference?

To farther addition penetration on the future chances of front office employees.

To look into the purposes of front office employees and what they want.

To look into further the range of front office work.

A research into the ‘whys ‘ of employee turnover grounds.


Human Capital & gt ; Internationalization

Human capital positively affects the internationalisation of an endeavor.

Human Capital & gt ; Service Innovation

Human capital positively affects the invention of service employees in respects to their work.

Internationalization & gt ; Performance

Internationalization affects the public presentation of a house whether it is financially or through guess satisfaction degree.

Service Innovation & gt ; Performance

The invention of the work force leads to break public presentation and guest satisfaction.

Theoretical / Conceptual Framework

The original

Degree of Internationalization

Entrepreneurial Orientation


Service Innovation

Human Capital

The original model was built for professional service houses particularly little and average endeavors ( SME ) ( Radulovich, 2008 ) . It was constructed to associate a service house ‘s entrepreneurial orientation, human capital, the house ‘s grade of internationalisation, service invention, and public presentation. This model was constructed upon exhaustively analyzing in the aforesaid countries above.

Adapted Model

Degree of Internationalization

Human Capital


Service Innovation

Skills and preparation ( Human Capital ) & gt ; Internationalization and Service Innovation & gt ; Effective work force & gt ; Guest Satisfaction and Performance

This model has been adapted and changed consequently to suit into the cordial reception industry ‘s index. The nucleus conceptual model is unchanged with the exclusion of excepting the Entrepreneurial Orientation facet which is extremely improbable to impact the nucleus construct and theory that is to be explained. As alterations are made, Human Capital will now be the nucleus drive force.

Hypothesis Related to Human Capital and Degree of Internationalization

In a survey done by ( Hitt, et Al, 2006 ) concludes that human capital is a primary resource subscriber to professional service international enlargement. The theory here is that a house ‘s grade of internationalisation is closely related to the human capital of the organisation. Key factors identified as conducive factors are knowledge ( Autio Sapienza & A ; Almeida, 2000 ) and besides top direction features ( Bloodgood, Sapienza & A ; Almeida, 1996 ) . This survey besides identified that the features and experience of the top direction squad relates positively to the internationalisation of an organisation. Another more recent survey besides proves that there is empirical survey which shows support for human capital resources as act uponing grade of internationalisation. ( Hitt, Bierman, Uhlenbruck, & A ; Shimizu, 2006 ) Therefore it can be concluded that there is positive influence of human capital professional service towards the internationalisation.

Hypothesis Related to Human Capital and Service Innovation

Human resources can be defined as interpersonal and concern accomplishments and is proven that there is a positive consequence on a house ‘s invention schemes. ( Radulovich, 2008 ) In a survey done in the US, human capital at both the person and house degree is identified as a positive consequence on service inventions ( Zhou, 2007 ) . Shane ( 2000 ) besides recorded that anterior cognition affects an single ability to comprehend new chances and to lend advanced solutions. To back up this theory, an in-depth survey was done with 8 houses carry oning a survey on analyzing invention and chance acknowledgment and is reported that anterior experience affected their ability to comprehend chances and innovate. ( Edelman, Brush, Manolova, 2005 ) . Furthermore, the anterior cognition and specialised cognition of the internal human resources are important subscribers to the invention of work velocity and competition degree as recorded in Chinese hi-tech ventures. ( Wu, Wang, Chen, & A ; Pan, 2008 )

Hypothesis Related to Degree of Internationalization and Performance

Surveies associating the grade of internationalisation and public presentation are non new and there is empirical grounds to back up this theory which positively affects a house ‘s public presentation ( Bloodgood, Sapienza, & A ; Almeida, 1996 ; Delios & A ; Beamish, 1999 ; Grant 1987 ; Hitt, Hoskisson, & A ; Kim, 1997 ) . Surveies besides show that as a new venture house gets into the international markets earlier additions better advantages over their rivals and improved public presentation. ( Brock, Yaffe, & A ; Dembovsky, 2006 ) . In the position of cordial reception footings, a trade name name can be created upon trust and trueness which is an of import factor for uninterrupted visits.

Hypothesis Related to Service Innovation and Performance

Service invention on service public presentation has been theoretically and through empirical observation confirmed with surveies done in recent old ages. It is confirmed that in differing context of globalisation that invention still improves public presentation of a house. Zhou, Yin and Tse ( 2005 ) have documented this relationship in their survey done in the emerging market of China. As China is a transitioning and developing market, it is merely comparable to the market of Malaysia. The comparing of the effects of China to the economic system of Hong Kong found that invention plays a major function in both these markets. ( Luk, Yau, Sin, Tse, Chow, & A ; Lee, 2008 )

Scope / Limitations

Scope: In this survey, the writer has chosen to carry on the research in all 5 star hotels in the country of the metropolis of Kuala Lumpur. This range will assist order and stand for metropolis hotels in Malaysia as it is busiest all twelvemonth unit of ammunition, and the occupation Scopess of the hotels are broad plenty to obtain informations. On a deeper degree, a study will be conducted to all front office staff ( e.g. Front office attender, bellman, front office comptroller, etc ) in order to obtain information.

Restrictions: As for restrictions, clip restraints and resource restrictions would be the biggest factor. A longitudinal survey would be best but the writer would merely hold about 6 months to roll up and analyse the information, in which the deepness of the research may non be excessively elaborate. Besides that, there will be a bound to research options available to the writer due to deficient cognition on research ways and as this will be the first research paper done by the writer. Notwithstanding, being a pupil, there will be restrictions in footings of entree to informations because of pecuniary issues and mercantile establishments to derive information in the industry.

Significance of Study

This research paper intends to analyse the different behavioral demands and wants of the front office work force. By garnering the work backgrounds, analyzing the motive factors and the purposes of this group, a better and effectual work force can be established to be in line with the transitioning facet of the industry. Ongoing research is a must in this country because of the ever-changing chances of the Hospitality and Tourism Industry, particularly the front office section. Key accomplishments and properties are to be identified as a benchmark for construction when hiring by the Human Resource section. This paper would be a guideline for the hotel industry participants to achieve information on the behavior of front office staff and their purposes for the hereafter. Employing and invariably actuating a work force is one of the hardest things to maintain up in any industry. Without proper information on the behavior and the purposes of the work force, being in a labour intensive work force and service oriented industry, there certainly will be a loss in footings of client satisfaction and the net incomes of a hotel and this is unacceptable.

Chapter 2 – Literature Reappraisal

2.1 Hospitality Skills and Nature of Hotel Front Office Work

‘Jobs normally retain a low-skill character, particularly in the fastest-growing sectors ‘

Bradley et Al ( 2002 ) ( p.129 )

The cordial reception sector is turning with a enormous rate, particularly in East Asia and the Pacific, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. These countries are forecasted to demo a rate of 5 % growing each twelvemonth and 4.1 % in Europe and Americas. ( WTO, 2010 ) There has been long standing argument over the accomplishments and nature of the front office work. It is widely characterised in both academic and popular imperativeness as a low-skilled occupation dominated by low accomplishments profile. ( Wood, 1997 ) In support of this theory, Shaw & A ; Williams ( 1994 ) foremost claimed that the cordial reception industry work force were ‘uneducated, unmotivated, untrained, unskilled and unproductive ‘ ( p. 142 ) . Upon farther research, the nature of front office work revealed by one side is in footings ‘un-unique ‘ ( Mullins, 1981 ; Lashley & A ; Morrison, 2000 ) . Mullins and Lashley argue that the proficient accomplishments of the cordial reception sector have relevancy and can be applied to other sectors of the economic system. Another dimension of why there is the public perceptual experience that the cordial reception industry is regarded as ‘low skilled ‘ is because there are no existent requirement for employment in footings of making ( Huddlestone and Hirst, 2004 ) .

Equally far as the research of Baum & A ; Devine ( 2007 ) and Baum ( 2007 ) goes the educational attainment of a individual is non an act uponing factor to set about the forepart office occupation. In footings of forepart office, the industry has considerable cross-over work of other sectors such as office disposal, accounting, and IT systems direction, these generic accomplishments tend to overlap each other. In this statement, where is the singularity of work accomplishment? By any means the cordial reception industry is merely borrowing a figure of skill forces from different industries, in this instance with a lower wage pay and a lower calling development chance.

This theory of unskilled labor in the cordial reception industry does non travel uncontested, in the forthcoming old ages after the thesis ( Baum T, 1996, 2002, 2006 ) . Baum inquiries the cogency of cordial reception work as a low skilled occupation universally based entirely upon the premise of westernized, international cordial reception work. It may be perceived so in general, but it is non applicable in the underdeveloped universe whereby the proficient demands and accomplishments are lower than those of the developed states.

Another such illustration of a considerable competition comes from Burns ( 1997, p.240 ) , Burns categorizes the labour force into two, ‘skilled ‘ and the ‘unskilled ‘ . Burns uses a really typical definition of accomplishments in the cordial reception for this expression:

‘ … the different sectors that comprise tourism-as-industry return different attacks to the human resources, and that some of these differences… are due to whether or non the employees have a history of being ‘organized ‘ ( either in footings of trade brotherhoods or staff associations with formalistic communicating processs. ‘ ( p.240 )

Both these factors are separated by manpower planning paradigms for the fabrication sector and as for the work force, it comes in traditional power, organisation. The work force takes control through the usage of trade brotherhoods and command the supply of labor through apprenticeship and preparation.

Lending factors worth observing are factors put forth by Seymour ( 2000 ) and Warhurst et Al ( 2000 ) , gives an added dimension to the work of cordial reception employees. Seymour adds in ’emotional labor ‘ reasoning that the added direction of emotions as portion of the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours occupation is the difference between working in fast nutrient as opposed to traditional countries of service work. The added ’emotional labor ‘ is at that place for the benefit of invitee experience and that they are paid to make it. In Baum T. ( 2007 ) , it is farther perceived that there is the demand for emotional intelligence ( EQ ) as defined by Goleman ( 1998, p.317 ) :

‘ . . . the capacity for acknowledging our ain feelings and those of others, for actuating ourselves, and for pull offing emotions good in ourselves and in our relationships. ‘

Explained by Warhurst et Al. ( 2000 ) and Witz et Al. ( 2003 ) the added aesthetic labor to the tools of trade is so of importance to the cordial reception workers, particularly to look office staff. In depicting aesthetic labor it is the accomplishment required to look, sound and act in a mode that is required for the occupation while run intoing the outlooks of the clients. They have to show the ability to prosecute in different facets with the clients such as cultural, societal, and economical affairs. This on manus requires a certain degree of instruction to be obtained.

2.2 Degree of Internationalization and Innovation

‘A scheme through which a house expands the gross revenues of its goods or services across the boundary lines of planetary parts and states into different geographic locations or markets ‘

( Westhead, Wright, Ucbasaran, & A ; Martin, 2001, p. 251 ) .

The demand for a house to spread out or internationalise is needed when a merchandise ‘s life rhythm has reached its extremum in a certain country. Having sufficiently drawn all its mark clients in the country, it is merely normal that spread outing to a new market opens itself to new markets and clients without the demand for a new merchandise. ( Radulovich, 2008 ) The enlargement of a trade name or house is extremely related to the grade of invention of its work force, runing from workers up through the direction. Hitt et Al, ( 1994 ) notes that invention thrusts enlargement globally and in bend the net income returns are invested one time once more to heighten an organisation. Research and development, selling constructs, human resources enlargement are some of the developments that can be done in order to continue farther. After old ages of set uping itself in the market and spread outing, holding many markets and exposure to make research development, a house will be able to prolong itself in footings of invention. ( Schumpeter, 1961 ) . Internationalization starts off merely with the followers of clients, nevertheless, when sufficient clip is given, houses that set up themselves expeditiously, their providers and spouses will finally follow in order to construct stronger relationships and spread out together. ( Hutchinson, Alexander, Quinn, & A ; Doherty, 2007 ) .

2.3 Education versus On-the-job Training.

In the industry, while representatives province that they prefer industry accomplishments and experience above instruction accomplishments and cognition, it is merely realistic that a mixture of both these qualities are required, which is missing in the work force. ( Smith & A ; Kemmis, 2010 ) . In the cordial reception industry most of the preparation is informal. Merely a little part ( 14 % ) of employees has gone through higher instruction in the several industry. The other 86 % comes from the private sector and employer preparation in the industry. It was found out in a survey that the National Vocational Qualification course of study, found out that developing in higher educational institutes would non cut it in the industry. ( People1st, 2009 ) In the same interview, two interviewees stated that on-the-job preparation is peculiarly the manner to travel in an industry that is interaction based in order for accomplishment development. The focal point on experience and accomplishment over instruction is proved in a survey done.

2.4 Human Capital

Human capital is one out of the 3 subdivisions of Intellectual Capital. Human capital is the cognition and mind that an single holds. Therefore, it is merely important that it plays an of import portion in impacting an enterprises public presentation as lone worlds are able to analyse and comprehend a state of affairs in order to get by with alteration. It is a valuable resource in any organisation particularly in a service oriented industry such as the hotel sector. Advantages come from the investings made by an organisation over clip, frequently when faced by alterations and competition. ( Canina, L. , Cathy, A. and Walsh, K. , 2006 ) When faced with troubles clients want proficiency and efficiency at naming jobs and covering with them. ( Skaggs and Youndt, 2003 ) The greater the ability, the better in footings of client base an organisation gets.

Chapter 3 – Research Methodology


In this chapter of the sample proposal, an account on the research methodological analysis and design is written. In the first portion of Chapter 3, there will be a brief debut on the intent, purposes and aims and benefits of the survey. Following that will be a treatment on the research design of the survey. Exploratory inside informations such as the population, sample and sampling processs are discussed. On the 3rd subdivision of the chapter, there will be added account on the informations aggregation processs and informations analysis stairss. A brief account on the questionnaires will be given to give an penetration on the inquiries asked.

3.1 Introduction

The intent of this survey is to exemplify the current behavior conditions of the front office. The information gathered will compose of the nature of front office work, instruction attainment degree, accomplishments, work background, attitudes towards the country of work and programs for the hereafter. By analysing these countries and acquired from these group of people in the cordial reception industry will enable the industry participants such as directors, policy and determination shapers to acquire a more personal insight expression at the wants, demands and future positions of these in demand people. Appropriate alterations and more effectual schemes in respects to high satisfaction degrees can be developed and be used in the industry to diminish labour turnover and low degree public presentations

3.2 Research Paradigm

For this survey, a quantitative survey will be implied instead than a qualitative survey to this deductive theory. Statistical and mathematical methods with the aid of the SPSS plan will be used to construe informations. A cross-sectional survey will be done in one said clip and on front office workers.

3.3 Research Design


The survey is intended to roll up informations on one of the most of import work force in the cordial reception industry ; the front office workers. The population of the study intended will be Front Office workers in the country of Kuala Lumpur.


The sample population of the survey will be the Front Office workers in the 5 star hotels in the Kuala Lumpur country. The sample population identified in the study goes by the different distinguishable countries of Kuala Lumpur ( Table 1 ) . The trying method that will be used is Cluster trying. Having already divided them into different location classs, the mark sample is so identified as the forepart office work force in hotels.

Name of Hotel


JW Marriot Hotel

Bukit Bintang

Park Royal Kuala Lumpur

Bukit Bintang

The Ritz Carlton Kuala Lumpur

Bukit Bintang

The Westin Kuala Lumpur

Bukit Bintang

Sheraton Imperial Kuala Lumpur

Golden Triangle

Hilton Kuala Lumpur

KL Sentral

Le Meridien Kuala Lumpur

KL Sentral

Ascott Kuala Lumpur


Crowne Plaza Mutiara Kuala Lumpur


Hotel Maya Kuala Lumpur


Hotel Nikko Kuala Lumpur


Mandarin Oriental Kuala Lumpur


Micasa All Suite Hotel


Pacific Regency Hotel Suites Kuala Lumpur


Prince Hotel and Residence


Renaissance Kuala Lumpur Hotel


Shangri-La Hotel Kuala Lumpur


The Gardens Hotel and Residances

Mid Valley

Palace of the Golden Horses


Grand Dorsett Subang Hotel

Petaling Jaya

Holiday Villa Subang

Petaling Jaya

Sunway Resort Hotel and Spa

Petaling Jaya

The Saujana Kuala Lumpur

Petaling Jaya

Table 1

3.4 Data Collection and Analysis

Primary informations – The informations collected from the questionnaire will be the chief beginning of primary informations.

Secondary data – much research has been done sing the effectivity of a work force and how to better. These beginnings are extremely resourceful and will come in helpful when information analysis is been done. The theories and decisions can be used to back up and ignore some of the findings in this survey. The secondary informations may come from a figure of literature signifiers such as journal articles, text editions and written experiences.

A formal proposal will be sent out to the General Managers of each of the selected hotels to guarantee engagement in the study. Upon blessing, the designation of all front office staff is indentified and recorded. As per placing all the front office workers ( dark hearers, concierge, bellman, front office helper, etc ) in the selected hotels, the questionnaire will so be distributed electronically to the caput of the front office section ; Front Office Manager. After the questionnaire is finished, the questionnaires should be collected and given back for information analysis. The information received will so be analyzed with the aid of the SPSS informations package. With the aid of the SPSS plan, prejudice replies and undependable replies can be disregarded. The usage of statistics and graphs will be implied to farther relate and analyze informations. As the information is sorted out, the dealingss of variables can be predicted with a correlativity and arrested development figure of 0.5 and higher is regarded as a positive relationship and -0.5 a negative. Decisions can so be done, comparings and the reaffirming of findings is to be compared with other similar research done on said subject.

3.5 Questionnaire Design

The end of the questionnaire is to roll up informations from within the front office section. To accomplish this, inquiries refering to the nature of the occupation, the work background, purposes for the hereafter and cardinal accomplishments and properties will all be posted. In respects to explicating the construction of the questionnaire in subdivisions, there will be 4 subdivisions. The first subdivision of the questionnaire will be in respects to personal inside informations. The 2nd portion of the questionnaire will be closed complete inquiries with picks to take from. This portion of the questionnaire is to acquire a response from the employees sing their positions on the cordial reception industry. The 3rd subdivision of the questionnaire will be about the nature of the front office work, and besides to acquire an interior expression to their demands and wants. The 4th and concluding subdivision is designed to wholly give freedom to the respondents with open-ended inquiries sing their positions on direction degrees and their ideas on preparation and accomplishments in the industry.

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