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Breakdown Roman Republic Essay, Research Paper

The Breakdown of the Republic by Thomas Humphrey

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The Romans built one of the most extended imperiums in the history of the universe. The autumn of a republican system to a absolutism was gradual and was brought approximately by many different factors. One major facet which was critical to the dislocation was the coming of physical force into the political sphere. This force or imposed force for political addition caused instability and paved the manner for an drawn-out period of civil war which ended in a absolutism. The seeds of political convulsion were planted by Tiberius and Gauis Gracchi. The force they evoked was continued by Marius and Sulla and eventually brought upon Rome by Julius Caesar.

Tiberius Gracchus was one of the first political figures to exert open force and was the first measure towards the dislocation of the democracy. The armed forces was the cause of many of the jobs faced by Rome at that clip. A adult male was required to function for 20 runs during his life-time and typically left for war aged 20 and returned as an old adult male. These work forces, who were traditionally husbandmans, lost the belongings to pretermit or had small or no motive to work. This caused hosts of unemployed veterans who lived off the authoritiess dole staff of life. Tiberius & # 8217 ; solution to this job was to give away big piece of lands of land to war veterans. Naturally the senate opposed this land measure as it would feed upon the patrician & # 8217 ; s wealth. Tiberius so ran for tribune used his power to seek and go through the measure. Tiberius could be stopped by another tribune blackballing his actions, but he arranged for the opposing tribune to be dragged out of the forum by his protagonists at the critical minute. This land act was passed. This marks the first usage of direct force for political addition. The senate so fuelled this force by reacting to this circumvention with the slaying of Tiberius and 300 of his protagonists when he tried to run for tribune a 2nd term. This force illustrates the turning instability in the senate caused by old ages of corruptness and fright.

& # 8220 ; Tiberius stood for re-election and his 300 protagonists were killed. This the first bloodshed..inaugrated a century of political violence. & # 8221 ; Michael Grant

Tiberius besides had a younger brother named Gauis who clearly demonstrates how the Roman political system was turning into a violent game. Gauis was voted as tribune in 123BC and so once more in 122BC. He was made popular by his assorted societal reforms which included the addition of bread ration to the hapless. Gauis supported his brother & # 8217 ; s set down reform and made certain they were enforced. He was besides really popular with Italian aliens populating in Rome. When he passed a measure to include non-Roman citizens into the authorities the senate was looking for a manner to acquire rid of him. The chance came when a pack member of a consul was killed by Gauis & # 8217 ; protagonists in a street bash. The senate unnecessarily sought a edict leting an ground forces into Rome. This ground forces killed Gaius and his 300 protagonists at the Aventine Hill where they had fortified themselves. These events went against many of the cardinal map of a democracy and the sum of force mirrored the province the democracy was in.

& # 8220 ; The Gracchi undid the development of the centuries, it is impossible to vouch orderly authorities if one tribune after another brings the first issues of Rome to a bulwark mob. & # 8221 ; Suetonius

Another figure who can show the turning political agitation in Rome is Gauis Marius in peculiar his replacement Cornelius Sulla. Marius was a self-made adult male with no blue background. All of his accomplishments were due to the armed forces. He was elected consul in 108 BC because he was needed to win a war against Jugurtha a barbaric male monarch. He was continually salvaging Rome from invasion and in 102 & # 8211 ; 103BC he fought conflicts against Germanic folk from northern Germany. He was successful and now controlled the most powerful ground forces in Roman history. Marius was in a place that could hold sealed the destiny of the democracy, if he had used the menace of military force to do himself dictator the democracy would hold ended. Marius alternatively marched onto a war in the East. But the chance for ultimate power was at that place and it was merely a affair of clip before a more ambitious general exploited

it.

& # 8220 ; It was this triumph in the E which sowed the first seed of that unreconcilable and acrimonious hatred between Marius and Sulla which about brought Rome to ruin. & # 8221 ; Plutarch

One of his generals in these eastern runs was Cornelius Sulla. Italian Rebels began an rebellion in Rome at approximately 91 BC and the senate called on Sulla to salvage the twenty-four hours. Sulla raised an ground forces and had triumph over the Rebels. This gave Sulla a high political place. He marched on Rome and had the senate criminal Marius. He so went Es to contend Mithradates, an eastern male monarch. Marius now marched his ground forces to Rome and occupied it. He undertook a bloody systematic retaliation on his enemies. His decease in 87 BC was the lone thing that brought these postscriptions to an terminal. The senate now raised an ground forces of Marius & # 8217 ; veterans and outlawed Sulla in 83 BC, a class of action which about surely led to civil war. Sulla marched on Rome and won triumph with easiness in 82 BC. Sulla so forced the senate to do him dictator. In consequence Sulla officially removed the senate from the regulation of Rome for the first clip, yet he proclaimed that it was merely a impermanent agreement to & # 8216 ; reconstruct the democracy & # 8217 ; . Both Marius and Sulla used force to derive power and the complications which arose are a clear illustration of how the democracy was steadily worsening. Although Sulla retired and gave power back to the senate it was clear that by this phase it was the adult male with the best ground forces was the most powerful.

& # 8220 ; Sulla followed a calling or self-advancement..yet every bit shortly as he had reorganised the authorities he laid down his absolutism and walked as a Roman citizen & # 8221 ; Pamela Bradley

But by far the most of import implementer of politically motivated force was Gauis Julius Caesar. Caesar was a general who had many great triumphs in frog and was now one of the most powerful work forces in Rome. He formed an confederation with two other generals, Pompey and Crassus. This was called the Triumvirate and it dictated the senate & # 8217 ; s actions. This usage of threatened force to command power was in consequence a thre adult male absolutism and the democracy was steadily worsening. But the senate had begun to pull strings Pompey and were utilizing him as pawn to seek and oppress Caesar before he became to powerful. In the twelvemonth 50 BC Pompey made allegations of lese majesty against Caesar. In Gaul Caesar faced a determination, travel to Rome and face test or March on Rome. In 49 BC, Caesar sat on the northern Bankss of the river Rubicon, after Pompey refused to compromise, Caesar marched and took over Rome as unchallenged dictator. This act is the individual most of import event in the dislocation of the democracy. It proved that person who had an ground forces and was willing to utilize it could go an of import powerful polititan, even to the point of dictator. Julius Caesar marked the terminal of any hope of a resurgence for the democracy.

& # 8220 ; The dice is cast & # 8221 ; Julius Caesar & # 8211 ; after traversing the Rubicon.

The turning usage of force by both senators and generals led to unsettlement in the parliament which in bend led to the dislocation of the democracy. We have seen from the Gracchi brothers through to Marius, Sulla and eventually Julius Caesar that the force intensified from street bashs to civil war in the procedure destructing the old democracy and doing manner for a new line of emperors ; the Caesars. From these emperors sprung a period of peace and prosperity for the Roman people which the population had been hungering after about a 100 old ages of civil war.

Bibliography

Kellerman J 1994, & # 8220 ; The history of the western universe & # 8221 ;

hypertext transfer protocol: //history.idbsu.edu/westciv/romanrev/index.html

Shotter D 1939, & # 8220 ; The autumn of the Roman imperium & # 8221 ;

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Massie A 1967, & # 8220 ; The Caesars & # 8221 ;

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Gibbon B 1979, & # 8220 ; Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire & # 8221 ;

Gallery Books, Hong Kong

Scullard, H 1903, & # 8220 ; From Grachhi to Nero & # 8221 ;

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Hawthorn J R 1963, & # 8220 ; The republican imperium & # 8221 ;

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Suetonius, & # 8220 ; The 12 caesars & # 8221 ;

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Plutarch, & # 8220 ; -Selected Hagiographas on Roman Life- & # 8221 ;

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