In the economic system of Pakistan the farm animal is of import fiscal factor. In farm animal American bison is major dairy animate being. Pakistan, being the fifth largest milk bring forthing state of the universe, has an one-year gross milk production of about 42,199 million dozenss, with buffalo lending 71 % of the entire milk production. Pakistan possesses 29 million caputs of American bison ( GOP, 2007-08 ) . Of all the domesticated animate beings of Asia Nili-Ravi American bison is most adaptative and various animate being ( Riaz et al. , 2008 ) . In Pakistan, the Nili-Ravi strain originated in the vale of Sutlej and Ravi is dominant in the Punjab state. This strain has now spread over all parts of including NWFP, Sindh, Baluchistan and Kashmir ( Afzal et al. , 2007 ) . Nili-Ravi American bisons performed far better than local and crossbred cowss in Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir ( Kuthu, 2007 ) , bespeaking its version to assorted environmental conditions.
In tropical states like Pakistan and Nigeria undergo a steady development in American bison and cow production rate ( Samad, 1985 ; Pathiraja et al. , 1988 ; Sekoni & A ; Oyedipe, 1995 ) . For familial betterment and to heighten the milk production Artificial Insemination is most effectual technique. Largely short clip storage require for Artificial inemination. As storage media is supportive for microbic growing so it is indispensable to add the antimicrobic agents in extender which have the ability to suppress the inordinate microbic growing ( Shoushtari et al. , 2007 ) . Absolutely healthy bull seeds largely considered as microbic taint free but these taints can be derived through testicles, epididymis, vessel respect, accessary sex secretory organs, urethra, preputial pit and unreal vagina ( Qureshi et al. , 1993 ) . Atmosphere, teaser animate beings, un-sterilized equipment and seeds extender may lend the taint of seeds ( Caballo, 1981 ) .
Keep the fertilizing capacity is the basic intent of seeds saving and usage of superior familial bull can be maximising by thining this seeds ( Kammisrud et al. , 1996 ) . Furthermore there is demand of effectual techniques to cut down the hazard of distributing pathogens through the seeds ( Kapoor, 2003 ) . Fertilizing capacity of sperm cell can be straight effected by micro-organism particularly bacteriums ( Morrell, 2006 ) , these bacteriums can bring on the acrosome reaction ( El-Mulla et al. , 1996 ) , can impair the sperm ‘s motility ( Panangala et al. , 1981 ; Kauret et al. , 1986 ) and these bateria have the ability to adhere with sperm cell ( Wolff et al. , 1993 ; Diemer et al. , 1996 ) . By bring forthing toxins these bacteriums can straight effects the fertilising capacity of sperm cell ( Morrell, 2006 ) .
The birthrate potency of Artificial Insemination was significantly increased first clip by add-on of antibiotic in extender ( de Jarnette et al. , 2004 ) . Streptomycin and pencillin is the traditional antibiotic combination that is used in buffalo bull seeds extender ( Sanson et al. , 2000 ) . However it is now necessary to look options for the SP-containing extender for buffalo bull seeds cryopreservation ( Certified Semen Services ( CSS® ) , 2002 ) , because some job with immune beings have been reported. A new combination of antibiotics comprised of gentamycin, tylosin and linco-Spectin has been used successfully to command the certain immune micro-organisms in cryopreserved bull seeds ( Garner, 1991 ) .
This Study will be conducted to look into:
( 1 ) – Consequence of 3 combinations of different antibiotic in extender on the bacterial count to better spermatozoa quality of buffalo bull seeds.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The importance of commanding bacterial populations in bovid seeds used for unreal insemination has been pointed out by Salisbury et Al. ( 1939 ) . A important relationship has been found between the figure of bacteriums in diluted seeds and its birthrate when all types of bacteriums were considered ( Bush et al. , 1950 ) . Infective bacteriums isolated from buffalo seeds include Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Aleem et al. , 1990 ; Ramaswarmy et al. , 2002 ; Kapoor, 2003 ) , Bacillus spp. ( Aleem et al. , 1990 ; Hasan et al. , 2001 ; Ramaswarmy et al. , 2002 ; Kapoor, 2003 ) , Streptococcous pyogenes ( Aleem et al. , 1990 ; Kapoor, 2003 ) , Corneybacterium spp. ( Ramaswarmy et al. , 2002 ; Kapoor, 2003 ) , Corneybacterium renale ( Kapoor, 2003 ) , Esherichia coli ( Aleem et al. , 1990 ; Ramaswarmy et al. , 2002 ; Hasan et al.,2001 ) , Staphylococcus spp. ( Hasan et al. , 2001 ; Ramaswarmy et al. , 2002 ) Aeromonas spp. and Streptococcus spp. ( Ramaswarmy et al.,2002 ) Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescenas, Pseudomonas testosteroni, Streptococccus aureus, Proteus Mirabilis and non-pathogenic bacteriums as Micrococcus spp. ( Aleem et al. , 1990 ; Hasan et al. , 2001 ) , Diphtheroids ( Aleem et al. , 1990 ) and Proteus ( Hasan et al. , 2001 ) . Delapena et al. , ( 1996 ) isolated gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium spp. , Staphylococcus spp. , Bacillus Cereus, and B. subtilis, and gram negative Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from fresh American bison seeds. From frozen seeds of American bison incorporating antibiotic combination streptomycin-pencilline bacterial species of genus Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas ( Parbhakar et al. , 1993 ; Hasan et al. , 2001 ) , Micrococcus, E. coli ( Prabhakar et al. , 1993 ) and Proteus ( Hasan et al. , 2001 ) were isolated.
Earlier surveies have shown that either pencillin or streptomycin would halt the growing of bacteriums of seeds without exercising any harmful consequence on endurance of sperm cell ( Almquist et al. , 1948, 1948a ) . However the most effectual control of bacteriums took topographic point when combination of pencillin and streptomycin was used ( Almquist et al. , 1949 ) . Now research workers are seeking to analysis the consequence of some new antibiotics like chlortetracycline, polymyxin and chloromxin and chloromcetin on bacteriums of bull seeds. Report by Myers et Al. ( 1950 ) and Sykes and Mixner ( 1950 ) and recent documents by foote and Bratton ( 1950 ) indicate that chlortetracycline was good for suppressing the bacterial growing but it is comparatively toxic to the motility of bull sperm cell. Polymyxin ( Foote and Brallon, 1950 ) nd chloramphenicol ( Sykes and Mixner, 1950 ) seem to be less harmful to the sperm cell and these antibiotics are extremely disinfectant. Aureomycin is effectual against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative orgranisms ( Paine et al. , 1948 ; Price et al. , 1948 ) . Myers and Almquist ( 1951 ) found that concentration 12.5 and 25µg per milliliter of chlortetracycline did non consequence the motility of sperm cell but that higher degree were toxic.
The combination of pencillin and fradicin has been reported to be more effectual so the combination of pencillin and streptomycin presently used ( sansone, 2000 ) . Shoushtari et Al. ( 2007 ) studied the consequence of 8 different antibiotics on commanding bacterial taint of buffalo seeds and they found that Terramycin and pencillin G were effectual in commanding seminal bacterial taints and because of inauspicious consequence of Terramycin on the sperm motility and morphology, it is non suited for this intent, they besides found that Erythrocin in dual dose signifier is effectual against the bacterium of buffalo seeds.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The research will be conducted at Animal Physiology Laborarty, Pir mher Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, territory Rawalpindi. The seeds will be collected from mature Nili-Ravi American bison bull ( Bubalus bubalis ) with a history of good birthrate in the Semen Production Unit Qadirabad, District Sahiwal, Pakistan by utilizing unreal vagina.
Semen quality will be evaluated by finding of the per centum of sperm progressive motility, viability, unnatural morphology and sperm concentration every bit good as volume, colour and viscousness rating of the seeds harmonizing to the process recommended by Ax et al. , ( 2000 ) and Barth ( 1997 ) by utilizing a light microscope with pre-warmed phase ( 370C ) at x400 magnification. The sample so will be diluted by tris extender, semen quality will be re evaluated to guarantee that the dilution will non impact the seeds quqlity.
GOP, 2007-08. Economic Survey, Economic Advisor Wing, Finance Division, Govt. Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Riaz, M.N. , N. A. Malik. , F. Nasreen and J. A. Qureshi. 2008. Molecular marker assisted survey of kappa-casein cistron in nili-ravi ( American bison ) strain of Pakistan. Pak. Vet. J. , 28 ( 3 ) : 103-106.
Afzal, M. , M. Anwar and M. A. Mirza. 2007. some factors impacting milk output and lactation length in nili ravi American bisons. Pakistan Vet. J. , 2007, 27 ( 3 ) : 113-117.
Kuthu, Z. H. , 2007. A survey on seasonality of genteelness and reproduction in Nili-Ravi American bisons, autochthonal ( non-descript ) and cross bred ( Jersey x autochthonal ) cattles in Muzaffarabad ( Azad Jammu and Kashmir ) . MSc ( Hons ) Thesis, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan.