Looking at media studies it can be said that, these yearss, metropoliss compete with each other for attending, visitants, shoppers, investing, endowment, events, etc. Intense and speed uping globalization has lead to a state of affairs where the chief competition is non local ( the town down the route ) but planetary ( any metropolis in the universe ) . Globalisation has ensured that this competition does non restrict itself to large metropoliss. Market deregulatings and betterments in engineering have made it possible for even smaller topographic points to be confronted with rivals located on another continent.
The cases are many. Entire towns in Italy have lost their raison d’etre as their furniture doing industry bunchs are wiped out by towns in China who produce the same merchandises at much lower costs. Alicante in Spain battles to vie with cheery beach finishs runing from Antalya in Turkey to Pattaya in Thailand. Bordeaux and its part face stiff competition from South Australia and the South African Cape Region for its traditional place of premier and premium vintner. Traditional auto doing Centres such as the West Midlands, Detroit, Stuttgart and Nagoya feel the heat from Bratislava and Shanghai. ( PlaceBrands )
The lone manner out in such a competitory scenario is branding. Branding of metropoliss can be done non merely for touristry but besides to market it as the perfect shopping, populating or investing finishs. This is non limited to coming up with a logo or a motto for the metropolis. The stakeholders responsible for metropoliss are many. They include the metropolis decision makers, the occupants of the metropolis, the concerns which run in the metropolis etc. for any metropolis stigmatization to be successful, it is indispensable that all of these stakeholders come together on a individual platform to portion and implement thoughts. Such a partnership is the first measure to alter the manner a metropolis operates, because it can at the same time traverse divides like those between authorities & A ; concern, humanistic disciplines & A ; athleticss, commercialism & A ; civilization, the populace & A ; community sectors. Therefore, the procedure of branding a finish is multi-layered.
Branding of metropoliss is basically about believing what the metropolis has to offer. The inquiry to be answered here is whether the metropolis has something so alone to offer that it makes people and concerns stay, and that it can pull more investings and people. Branding of metropoliss is about intentionally seeking to make, communicate and sustain attractive forces for different sets of consumers. Such actions consist of investings, physical and economic programs, attractive force programmes, events, communications, and the similar.
Like every trade name, metropolis trade names besides have touchable and intangible facets. These facets have to be typical and easy identifiable. These include metropolis visual aspect, people ‘s experience of the metropolis, people ‘s belief in the metropolis, what the metropolis stands for, and what sort of people inhabit the metropolis.
The figure of urban Centres harmonizing to the 2001 nose count is near to 4 1000. Recent surveies ( Anupam Yog, , 2009 ) show that in India, about 300 million people inhabit urban countries today and do up approximately 30 % of the population. Urban India has grown by about 5 times over the past 50 old ages, even as the overall population has grown by merely 2.5 times. Today, even though merely 30 % of India ‘s people dwell in its metropoliss and towns ; urban countries generate over 60 % of the state ‘s GDP and history for 90 % of authorities ‘s revenue enhancement grosss. These Numberss underscore the significance of metropoliss in India ‘s economic and societal development ; more significantly, they highlight the chance metropoliss represent for India in the twenty-first century. The economic foundation and fight of the state is anchored in the industries, trade, commercialism and services clustered in urban conglobations. Biass of society, excessively, tend to vanish in urban centres due to the exposure to diverse thoughts and values. It might besides be worthwhile to look back in history and appreciate that our greatest accomplishments took topographic point in our metropoliss. The lesson: As India gets set to treble its urban population in the following two decennaries ; we must accept urbanization as an affirmatory inclination and authorise our metropoliss. ( Anupam Yog, , 2009 )
Another of import phenomenon in the Indian context is its big youth population. Around 50 % of India ‘s population is below 34 old ages of age. This youth population would be the footing of the development that India is taking for. The manner this young person makes picks becomes a critical facet of this development. Choices sing instruction, calling, amusement etc. become of extreme importance to sellers waiting to capture this young person as their clients.
Cities and Young person:
Young people are attracted to metropoliss as metropoliss are the hub of chances in instruction and callings. But the manner Indian young person looks at metropoliss is altering. It is non merely the four tube metropoliss which are pulling childs but the new and approaching metropoliss in the other parts of the state besides. These metro metropoliss dominate the imaginativeness & A ; involvements of the populace, the media every bit good as intellectuals. Even though these megacities will play a important function in the urban hereafter ; forms of growing suggest that most of the universe ‘s every bit good as India ‘s urbanization will take topographic point in smaller metropoliss and towns with population less than 500,000.This aspect of urban growing represents great challenge and a great hope at the same clip. Current planning and execution mechanisms are really weak in smaller towns and metropoliss. They frequently lack the resources, the accomplishment set and the proficient expertness to cover with urbanization. They besides offer a enormous chance for puting a new urban docket for the Nation. Given that the smaller urban centres are in their early phases of growing, they offer a far greater chance to prosecute in new sustainable thoughts of urbanism. ( Anupam Yog, , 2009 )
In order for the metropoliss to pull more and more young person to come and populate at that place, they should project the right trade name image. Therefore, stigmatization of the metropolis becomes of import. The stigmatization attempts should unite the touchable and intangible facets of the metropolis to make a alone and clearly identifiable trade name personality for the metropolis.
Majority of the literature available on ‘destination branding ‘ is concentrated on touristry and the ways and agencies in which topographic points can pull more tourers. Tourism is merely one facet for which finish stigmatization can be used. Branding finishs or metropoliss is seen as a strategic tool to pull investings, tourers every bit good as occupants to the metropolis. Though stigmatization as a construct is non new to us, the construct of ‘Destination branding ‘ is a recent phenomenon. It came into pattern sometime in the early 1990s. Its deductions have now moved beyond merely leisure touristry selling. There has been really less research done on the stigmatization of finishs as either concern Centres or residential bunchs. This is surprising sing the fact that the really being of metropoliss is based on many other of import factors than merely touristry.
Apart from topographic points being branded as touristry finishs, a new line of survey is directed towards comparing corporate stigmatization with the stigmatization of finishs. These surveies aim to understand whether any similarities can be drawn in these two stigmatization watercourses.
Topographic point stigmatization is defined as ‘the pattern of using trade name scheme and other selling techniques and subjects to the economic, political and cultural development of metropoliss, parts and states ‘ . ( KAVARATZIS, 2009 )
The beginning of finish ( metropolis ) branding comes from the premise that people ‘understand ‘ metropoliss as they understand trade names ( KAVARATZIS, 2009 ) . The metropolis really takes form in the heads of the people through the images and perceptual experiences that people have about the metropolis. The similarities between corporate stigmatization and metropolis stigmatization are many. The footing of both is relationship selling. In instance of metropoliss, it can be thought of as the relationship between the occupants of the metropolis as clients and the local governments & A ; service suppliers as corporations. The basic undertaking in corporate stigmatization is the designation of the factors which form the corporate individuality. But some research workers are of the sentiment that there can non be a individual individuality of a corporate trade name since it makes the range for corporate stigmatization really narrow.
Balmer and Greyser provide a model which has five types of individualities which every corporation has ( England, 1999 ) . They call it the AC2ID. These are: Actual individuality ( the current properties of the corporation ) ; Communicated individuality ( revealed through governable corporate communicating ) ; Conceived individuality ( perceptual experiences of the company held by relevant stakeholders ) ; Ideal individuality ( the optimum placement of the administration in its market in a given time-frame ) and Desired individuality ( the vision of corporate leaders for the administration ) . This model was applied by Trueman while set abouting the stigmatization of the metropolis Bradford in United Kingdom. These five individualities can be summarised as ( England, 1999 ) :
Actual individuality: This is the world of the metropolis, its edifices, values and behaviors of the occupants, the concerns, the observations & A ; experiences about the substructure of the topographic point.
Communicated individuality is revealed through the seeable communications about the topographic point.
Conceived individuality is the set of perceptual experiences and images that the assorted stakeholders have about the topographic point.
Ideal individuality is the optimal placement of the metropolis through its capablenesss and chances in the given clip frame.
Desired individuality is the vision of the stakeholders who are responsible for the stigmatization of the metropolis.
Similarities between corporate and metropolis trade names comes from the fact that both are multidisciplinary in nature, both have multiple groups of stakeholders, both are extremely intangible and complex, both need to take into history societal duty, both need a long-run development ( Balmer, 2001 ) .
There are some cardinal constituents of finish stigmatization ( Balakrishnan, 2009 ) . They include:
Vision, which is the get downing point of any scheme and stakeholder direction as there are multiple stakeholders involved.
Designation of the mark clients, as so the selling attempts would be concentrated on aiming merely those clients. Besides the selling scheme would be aligned to the bing assets and those assets which can be developed.
Positioning and distinguishing the trade name utilizing trade name positioning statement.
Communication scheme which includes primary and secondary communications.
Pull offing the response to all these attempts through effectual feedback systems and word of oral cavity.
Following is a theoretical account of metropolis stigmatization proposed by Balakrishnan:
( Balakrishnan, 2009 )
Many empirical surveies are now researching the factors which contribute to finish image. The image of finishs is made of two types of factors: cognitive and affectional ( Crompton, 1979 ) . The significance that people derive out of a topographic point is non wholly dependent on its physical factors. City trade names are like umbrella corporate trade names. They encompass many things at the same clip. They are similar aggregations of single services & A ; installations and conducive elements ( Hankinson, 2005 ) . The existent undertaking of metropolis trade name directors is to choose a set of these single elements as a footing for the metropolis as a merchandise. Besides, topographic points are multi-functional in nature. This means that every individual would hold a different relationship with the metropolis based on his experiences from it. Thus the control of the metropolis ‘s trade name director on the perceptual experiences of people about the metropolis reduces ( Ashworth, 1990 ) .
Again, research workers have defined metropolis branding otherwise from metropolis selling. Research workers see the aim as ‘a means both for accomplishing competitory advantage in order to increase inward investing and touristry ‘ on the one manus, and to promote ‘community development, reenforcing local individuality aˆ¦ and to avoid societal exclusion and unrest ‘ on the other ( Kavaratzis, 2004 ) .
Some other analogues which can be drawn between corporate stigmatization and metropolis stigmatization are through the six Stationss of metropolis stigmatization: ‘management ‘ ( metropolis contrivers ) , ‘ human power ‘ ( societal capital of local communities ) , ‘ scheme ‘ , and ‘ creativeness ‘ , on the one manus ; to ‘ communications ‘ ( community engagement ) , and ‘ image / repute /personality ‘ on the other ( Suvatjis, 2005 ) .
Another argument which research workers have got into is the difference between trade name image and trade name personality of finishs. Both these footings have been used interchangeably many times. The definitions of these footings is besides equivocal in the sense that trade name image is defined in footings of trade name personality. The beginning of both these footings comes from the fact that people treat merchandises ( finishs ) as holding human features. But a more promising idea is that trade name personality is a portion of the image of that trade name. The personality of the finish that people have in their heads surely affects the image of that finish that people would explicate.
All this brings us to the fact that finish branding involves understanding the personality of the topographic point and so projecting the right facets of the topographic point to pull the identified mark group. Therefore, branding a finish is non restricted to merely pulling tourers, it can be leveraged to many more things like investings etc. Besides, a finish as a trade name has multiple offerings for multiple people. Therefore, it becomes hard to integrate all these facets in one trade name image. But attempts in these waies are being made by public and private organic structures likewise and many successful illustrations are before us.
Branding of metropoliss or finishs in India is highly limited to touristry. Besides, these attempts seem to be undertaken by the Government merely. Recent illustrations of this could be the ‘Incredible India ‘ run which has been running since 2002. But so this is merely the communicating run. The purpose of this run is to pull more and more foreign tourers to India. The success of this run can be measured in the addition in the figure of tourers to the state. Branding of metropoliss in India is done merely for specific occasions for illustration the approaching Commonwealth games. Otherwise there is really less literature available on set uping the trade name image of metropoliss through the assorted factors that constitute the metropolis.
Besides, India being a immature state in footings of the age of bulk of its population, there are assorted factors which go into this young person taking assorted finishs to populate, survey and work. There has been minimum or no research which explores these factors which drive the picks made by Indian young person about assorted finishs. Today it is non merely the tube metropoliss which are pulling the young person. Surveies have shown that new and approaching metropoliss like Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Pune are besides some of the preferable finishs for the young person.
The bing image of the metropolis is of import or is it the promise of a better image in the hereafter is what drives the young person is now the inquiry.
Before establishing into any programs of stigmatization or rebranding a metropolis, the requirement is to set up the current trade name image or personality of the topographic point. Merely when the current placement of the topographic point in the eyes of its present and possible occupants is established can a program for the better placement through stigmatization of the topographic point can be thought of.
The purpose of this survey is to understand the outlooks of immature people from the topographic point which they choose to populate in. There are legion factors which affect the manner people feel about any topographic point. These include the substructure of the metropolis, the bing comfortss, the occupants of the metropolis, the disposal, jurisprudence & A ; order etc. this survey would take to understand how of import are each of these factors for the young person while taking a metropolis to populate in.
The metropoliss chosen for this survey are Mumbai and Bengaluru. One is an bing tube metropolis and the other is a mini-metro. These have emerged as two of the most preferable finishs for immature pupils and professionals to work and populate.
To understand the outlooks of the Indian young person from the metropolis they choose to populate in.
To set up the trade name personality of Mumbai and Bengaluru utilizing Aaker ‘s Brand Personality Scale, based on the bing resources in the metropoliss
To understand the outlooks of young person from these two metropoliss
To get at the trade name elements which these metropoliss may leverage to pull more young person
Factors unique to these metropoliss which are of import to the young person
The comparative importance of physical and emotional benefits of life in either of these two metropoliss.
Potential alterations required in the bing metropolis
The proposed research has both qualitative and quantitative facets. The consecutive stairss of the research would be based on the findings of the predating stairss.
Qualitative: This would be an explorative research to get at the parametric quantities for the trade name personality of the two metropoliss.
Quantitative: This would be descriptive in nature utilizing the study method.
The tool used for both these types of research would be a questionnaire. The unit of measuring would be an person.
Young pupils in the age group of 22-27 old ages
Working professionals in the age group of 22-34 old ages of age
A portion of the sample would be go outing occupants of Mumbai and Bengaluru
Another portion would be people from the remainder of the state
Sampling technique used would be stratified trying based on:
Respondents would be from identified colleges offering professional classs
Administrations would be identified across the state and the questionnaire would be administered to its employees
Findingss and decisions
Brand personalities of these two metropoliss would be arrived at utilizing Aaker ‘s Brand Personality Scale
Expectations of young person from the life in these metropoliss would be quantified and arrived at
Possible elements which can lend towards the stigmatization of these metropoliss would be identified
This survey would move as a footing for the stigmatization exercising for the metropoliss of Mumbai & A ; Bengaluru. Particularly in the instance of these two metropoliss as Mumbai after the panic attacks needs a rethinking of its placement amongst immature people and Bengaluru is besides seeking to come out of the IT-only ticket that it has carried for old ages.