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It is of import to understand the significance of each term, which are Safety Culture and Safety Management System ( SMS ) before proceed to any farther treatment.

Safety Culture is one of the of import factors that contribute to the overall safety consciousness in an air power industry.

This term was foremost come up after the Chernobyl atomic power accident in Ukraine. It was mentioned by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group ( INSAG ) in their drumhead study sing this accident ( INSAG, 2002 ) . The study explained how the organizational behavior and operator misdemeanors that have lead to this black phenomenon.

Since so, there are several ‘high profile ‘ accidents with respects to aviation industry that straight related to the hapless safety civilization. For illustrations:

The catastrophes of the Space Shuttles Challenger ( 1986 ) .

The Uberlingen Mid-Air Collision ( 2002 ) .

The catastrophes of the Space Shuttles Columbia ( 2003 ) .

There are many definitions that could depict the safety civilization. However, harmonizing to International Civil Aviation Organisation ( ICAO ) Human Factor Digest 10, safety civilization is:

‘A set of beliefs, norms, attitudes, functions and societal and proficient patterns with understating exposure of employees, directors, clients, and members of the general populace to conditions considered unsafe or risky. ‘

Safety civilization can merely be described as ‘the manner safety is done around here – underscoring that it is concerned with the worlds of safety, and non needfully what people say should be done ‘ ( Eurocontrol, 2007 ) .

From the statements above, safety civilization mightA have beenA achievedA when all people in that air power administration are to the full concern, cognizant and reflect the importance of safety. Additionally, in my personal position, the words ‘reflect ‘ must beA nurturedA untilA it is naturallyA bornA fromA one’sA heartA andA notA by force from others. It besides could be best described as the ‘safety mindfulness ‘ of the individual itself.


Safety Management System is yet another of import factor that contributes to the overall safety consciousness in an air power industry. It is really a professional attack to safety. It has a systematic, precise, and wholly covers all the procedure for pull offing safety hazards.

When talked about ‘management ‘ , in this instance, Safety Management System is merely like any other managerial attack with the same layout such as end scene, planning, and besides mensurating public presentation. Having all of these characteristics, it is more focussed into safety system, policies, and the defined method in covering with safety hazard. By supplying information with respects to safety, possibly the air power administration could implement and reflect this system therefore, do it competency and capable in their operation while continuing the highest degree of operational safety.

Safety Management System normally can be found throughout overall air power administration. All employees irrespective of their place have no privileged in avoiding safety. Safety direction activity is non limited to merely one specific undertaking in the administration. In each and every undertaking they did, all of the employees must lend and pattern their ‘way of making the occupation ‘ in conformity with safety direction system. For larger air hoses administration, safety direction activity will be evidently noticeable in ‘engineering floor ‘ ( technology section ) compared with other sections such as fiscal section or human resource section. In order to guarantee the consistence of this system, there must be good designed processs sing the safety policy. The system can be established by the execution and uninterrupted support from the upper direction degree.

However, from another position, Safety Management System is non a standalone system. It can non be successfully achieved by itself. For illustration, each clip when there is a new thought is being introduced to the employees, they will of class tend to defy that. It is normal as all human being does non like to alter. That is why holding merely a good thought does non vouch the success of Safety Management System. On the other manus, even a well- planned system or thoughts have failed in pattern because some of the critical elements such as committedness, awareness, or competency were losing ( Transport Canada, 2010 ) .

Committedness: In the face of operational and commercial force per unit areas do company leaders have the will to do safety direction tools work efficaciously?

Awareness: Do the leaders understand the nature of pull offing for safety?

Competence: Are safety direction policy and processs appropriate, understood, and decently applied at all degrees in the organisation?

Those three elements above will find whether Safety direction System achieves its end or non and at the same clip it leads to the constitution of Safety Culture inside the administration.


In this instance, I agree that Safety Management System is non possible without a Safety Culture. Below is the account why safety civilization is still of import even though an first-class Safety Management System already being in topographic point.

There might non be sufficient plenty to guarantee an equal safety operation of the air hoses administrations even though appropriate and intensive Safety Management System is being applied in keeping and bettering the overall air hoses operation. Every employee inside the air power administrations need to gain the being of Safety Management System, know why it is existed, understand its intent, and ever be encourage to follow the system that is being develop. It is deserving to cognize that Safety Management System does non assure safety if it is non being followed consequently.

A positive Safety Culture is the key to guarantee the uninterrupted advancement of Safety Management System. It ‘s the same when it goes the other manner unit of ammunition which from the execution of a good Safety Management System, positive Safety Culture could be achieved. Performance and consistence of safety system in the administration are normally managed by the organizational patterns. A well-developed Safety Management System can hence function as an gas pedal of Safety Culture ( Reason 1993, 1997 ) . This is another point that shows the correlativity between Safety Management System and Safety Culture. It is because ; Safety Culture is reflecting the committedness to accomplish safety while Safety Management System indicates the ability to accomplish safety ( see figure 5 ) .

Safety Management System and Safety Culture work better when they are ‘paired ‘ together. The effectivity of partner offing Safety Culture and Safety Management System could help to calculate out any insufficiency of the Safety Culture in pattern therefore, give the administration a feedback so that an betterment must be made sing the policy of the Safety Management System. When speaking approximately ‘paired ‘ together, there must besides hold a spread between Safety Culture and Safety Management System in order to keep uninterrupted feedback. It might be worst when the employees are non bothered to describe any incident if there is a proficient job sing the mistake coverage system.

Meanwhile, any Safety Cultural issues that might come up could be revealed by carry oning a study among the employees such as negative safety attitudes, communicating job between different sections or even across each beds of the administration. This might go on when the employees thought that Safety Management System is merely merely ‘for show ‘ or ‘protect ‘ direction ( Safety Culture in Air Traffic Management, 2008 ) .

All in all, a well-planned Safety Management System can be implemented or can be altered for any betterment straight off, whereas Safety Culture takes clip to set up and go matured. Even during the initial start-up of these two things, Safety Management System can merely be express by composing down in field words, being documented and published as the organizational safety policy and process but in contrast, it is hard to show and place the significance of Safety Culture in term of their characteristics. Those characteristics such as group attitudes, perceptual experience, and beliefs are really the influencing factor of safety direction activities ( Kennedy and Kirwan, 1995 ) . The International Civil Aviation Organisation Safety Management Manual besides states that:

“ Before an organisation can implement an effectual Safety Management System, it needs to possess an appropriate safety civilization. ”

Without any uncertainty, Safety Culture is more hard to be explained and implemented compared to Safety Management System, but both of them rely entirely on each other and they have the same common idea of keeping and bettering safety.

Part ( 2 ) Will censuring an applied scientist prevent him or her from doing errors in the hereafter? Discuss. ( 1750 words lower limit )

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